In some cases the application of patches to the kernel [lkm] is also common.
A patch file in relation to the Linux kernel is an ASCII text file that contains the differences between the original source code and the new code, with additional information on file names and code lines. The patch program (see man patch) serves to apply it to the tree of the kernel source code (normally in /usr/src).
The patches are usually necessary when special hardware requires some modification of the kernel or some bugs (errors) have been detected subsequent to a wide distribution of a kernel version or else a new specific feature is to be added. In order to correct the problem (or add the new feature), it is usual to distribute a patch instead of an entire new kernel. When there are already several of these patches, they are added to various improvements of the preceding kernel to form a new version of the kernel. In all events, if we have problematic hardware or the error affects the functioning or stability of the system and we cannot wait for the next version of the kernel; we will have to apply the patch.
The patch is usually distributed in a compressed file of the type bz2 (bunzip2, although you can also find it in gzip with the extension .gz), as in the case of for example:
where xxxx is usually any message regarding the type or purpose of the patch 2.6.21 would be the version of the kernel to which the patch is to be applied, and pversion would refer to the version of the patch, of which there can also be several. We need to bear in mind that we are speaking of applying patches to the sources of the kernel (normally installed, as we have already seen, in /usr/src/linuxor a similar directory).
Once we have the patch, we must apply it, we will find the process to follow in any readme file that accompanies the patch, but generally the process follows the steps (once the previous requirements are checked) of decompressing the patch in the source files directory and applying it over the sources of the kernel, for example:
cd /usr/src/linux (or /usr/src/linux-2.6.21 or any other version). bunzip2 patch-xxxxx-2.6.21-version.bz2 patch -p1 < patch-xxxxx-2.6.21-version
and afterwards we will have to recompile the kernel in order to generate it again.
The patches can be obtained from different places. Normally, we can find them in the kernel storage site (www.kernel.org) or else in www.linuxhq.com, which has a complete record of them. Some Linux communities (or individual users) also offer corrections, but it is better to search the standard sites in order to ensure that the patches are trustworthy and to avoid possible security problems with "pirate" patches. Another way is the hardware manufacturer, which may offer certain modifications of the kernel (or controllers) so that its devices work better (one known example is Linux NVIDIA and the device drivers for its graphic cards).
Finally, we should point out that many of the GNU/Linux distributions (Fedora/Red Hat, Mandriva...), already offer the kernels patched by themselves and systems for updating them (some even automatically, as in the case of Fedora/Red Hat and Debian). Normally, in production systems it is more advisable to keep up with the manufacturer's updates, although it does not necessarily offer the latest published kernel, but rather the one that it finds most stable for its distribution, at the expense of missing the latest generation features or technological innovations included in the kernel.