git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent commit>)...] < changelog
This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See git-commit(1) instead.
Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits the new commit object id on stdout.
A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits have no parents.
While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how to get there.
Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.
-p <parent commit>
A commit encapsulates:
While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and committer information is taken from the following environment variables, if set:
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL GIT_AUTHOR_DATE GIT_COMMITTER_NAME GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL GIT_COMMITTER_DATE EMAIL
(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not present, system user name and fully qualified hostname.
A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support the following date formats:
Git internal format
You don't exist. Go away!
Your parents must have hated you!
Your sysadmin must hate you!
At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.
git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like this:
[i18n] commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like this:
[i18n] logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.
Written by Linus Torvalds <m[blue]email@example.com>
Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <m[blue]firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Part of the git(1) suite