magicrescue - Scans a block device and extracts known file types by looking at
magicrescue [ options ] devices
Magic Rescue opens devices for reading, scans them for file types it knows
how to recover and calls an external program to extract them. It looks at
``magic bytes'' in file contents, so it can be used both as an undelete utility
and for recovering a corrupted drive or partition. It works on any file system,
but on very fragmented file systems it can only recover the first chunk of
each file. These chunks are sometimes as big as 50MB, however.
To invoke magicrescue, you must specify at least one device and the -d
and -r options. See the ``USAGE'' section in this manual for getting
Default: 1. This will direct magicrescue to only consider files that start
at a multiple of the blocksize argument. The option applies only to the
recipes following it, so by specifying it multiple times it can be used to get
different behavior for different recipes.
Using this option you can usually get better performance, but fewer files will
be found. In particular, files with leading garbage (e.g. many mp3 files) and
files contained inside other files are likely to be skipped. Also, some file
systems don't align small files to block boundaries, so those won't be found
this way either.
If you don't know your file system's block size, just use the value 512, which
is almost always the hardware sector size.
Mandatory. Output directory for found files. Make sure you have plenty of free
space in this directory, especially when extracting very common file types such
as jpeg or gzip files. Also make sure the file system is able to handle
thousands of files in a single directory, i.e. don't use FAT if you are
extracting many files.
You should not place the output directory on the same block device you are
trying to rescue files from. This might add the same file to the block device
ahead of the current reading position, causing magicrescue to find the same
file again later. In the worst theoretical case, this could cause a
loop where the same file is extracted thousands of times until disk space is
exhausted. You are also likely to overwrite the deleted files you were looking
for in the first place.
Mandatory. Recipe name, file, or directory. Specify this as either a plain
name (e.g. "jpeg-jfif") or a path (e.g. recipes/jpeg-jfif). If it doesn't
find such a file in the current directory, it will look in ./recipes and
PREFIX/share/magicrescue/recipes, where PREFIX is the path you installed
to, e.g. /usr/local.
If recipe is a directory, all files in that directory will be treated as
Browse the PREFIX/share/magicrescue/recipes directory to see what recipes
are available. A recipe is a text file, and you should read the comments
inside it before using it. Either use the recipe as it is or copy it somewhere
and modify it.
For information on creating your own recipes, see the ``RECIPES'' section.
Reads input files from file in addition to those listed on the command line.
If file is "-", read from standard input. Each line will be interpreted as
a file name.
Produce machine-readable output to stdout. output_mode can be:
Print each input file name before processing
Print each output file name after processing
Print both input and output file names. Input file names will be prefixed by
"i" and a space. Output file names will be prefixed by "o" and a space.
Nothing else will be written to standard output in this mode.
Resume from the specified offset in the first device. If prefixed with
0x it will be interpreted as a hex number.
The number may be prefixed with a sign:
Seek to an absolute position (default)
Seek to a relative position. On regular files this does the same as the above.
Seek to EOF, minus the offset.
Say you have destroyed the file system on /dev/hdb1 and you want to extract
all the jpeg files you lost. This guide assumes you have installed Magic
Rescue in /usr/local, which is the default.
Make sure DMA and other optimizations are enabled on your disk, or it will take
hours. In Linux, use hdparm to set these options:
$ hdparm -d 1 -c 1 -u 1 /dev/hdb
Choose your output directory, somewhere with lots of disk space.
$ mkdir ~/output
Look in the /usr/local/share/magicrescue/recipes directory for the recipes
you want. Magic Rescue comes with recipes for some common file types, and you
can make your own too (see the next section). Open the recipes you want to use
in a text editor and read their comments. Most recipes require 3rd party
software to work, and you may want to modify some parameters (such as
min_output_file) to suit your needs.
It will scan through your entire hard disk, so it may take a while. You can
stop it and resume later of you want to. To do so, interrupt it (with CTRL+C)
and note the progress information saying what address it got to. Then restart
it later with the -O option.
When it has finished you will probably find thousands of .jpg files in
~/output, including things you never knew was in your browser cache. Sorting
through all those files can be a huge task, so you may want to use software or
scripts to do it.
First, try to eliminate duplicates with the dupemap(1) tool included in this
$ dupemap delete,report ~/output
If you are performing an undelete operation you will want to get rid
of all the rescued files that also appear on the live file system. See the
dupemap(1) manual for instructions on doing this.
If that's not enough, you can use use magicsort(1) to get a better overview:
$ magicsort ~/output
Creating recipe files
A recipe file is a relatively simple file of 3-5 lines of text. It describes
how to recognise the beginning of the file and what to do when a file is
recognised. For example, all jfif images start with the bytes "0xff 0xd8".
At the 6th byte will be the string "JFIF". Look at recipes/jpeg-jfif in
the source distribution to follow this example.
Matching magic data is done with a ``match operation'' that looks like this:
where offset is a decimal integer saying how many bytes from the beginning
of the file this data is located, operation refers to a built-in match
operation in magicrescue, and parameter is specific to that operation.
The string operation matches a string of any length. In the jfif example
this is four bytes. You can use escape characters, like "\n" or "\xA7".
The int32 operation matches 4 bytes ANDed with a bit mask. To match all
four bytes, use the bit mask "FFFFFFFF". If you have no idea what a bit mask
is, just use the string operation instead. The mask "FFFF0000" in the jfif
example matches the first two bytes.
The char operation is like ``string'', except it only matches a single
To learn these patterns for a given file type, look at files of the desired
type in a hex editor, search through the resource files for the file(1)
utility (<http://freshmeat.net/projects/file>) and/or search the Internet for
a reference on the format.
If all the operations match, we have found the start of the file. Finding the
end of the file is a much harder problem, and therefore it is delegated to an
external shell command, which is named by the command directive. This
command receives the block device's file descriptor on stdin and must write to
the file given to it in the $1 variable. Apart from that, the command can do
anything it wants to try and extract the file.
For some file types (such as jpeg), a tool already exists that can do this.
However, many programs misbehave when told to read from the middle of a huge
block device. Some seek to byte 0 before reading (can be fixed by prefixing
cat|, but some refuse to work on a file they can't seek in). Others try to
read the whole file into memory before doing anything, which will of course
fail on a muti-gigabyte block device. And some fail completely to parse a
partially corrupted file.
This means that you may have to write your own tool or wrap an existing program
in some scripts that make it behave better. For example, this could be to
extract the first 10MB into a temporary file and let the program work on that.
Or perhaps you can use tools/safecat if the file may be very large.
Recipe format reference
Empty lines and lines starting with "#" will be skipped. A recipe contains a
series of match operations to find the content and a series of directives to
specify what to do with it.
Lines of the format offsetoperationparameter will add a match
operation to the list. Match operations will be tried in the order they appear
in the recipe, and they must all match for the recipe to succeed. The
offset describes what offset this data will be found at, counting from the
beginning of the file. operation can have the following values:
The parameter is a character sequence that may contain escape
sequences such as \xFF.
The parameter is a single character (byte), or an escape sequence.
Both value and bitmask are expressed as 8-character hex strings.
bitmask will be ANDed with the data, and the result will be compared
to value. The byte order is as you see it in the hex editor,
The first match operation in a recipe is special, it will be used to scan
through the file. Only the char and string operations can be used there.
To add more operation types, look at the instructions in magicrescue.c.
A line that doesn't start with an integer is a directive. This can be:
Mandatory. ext names the file extension for this type, such as "jpg".
Mandatory. When all the match operations succeed, this command will be
executed to extract the file from the block device. command is passed to
the shell with the block device's file descriptor (seeked to the right byte) on
stdin. The shell variable $1 will contain the file its output should be
written to, and it must respect this. Otherwise magicrescue cannot tell
whether it succeeded.
Optional. After a successful extraction this command will be run. Its purpose
is to gather enough information about the file to rename it to something more
meaningful. The script must not perform the rename command itself, but it
should write to standard output the string "RENAME", followed by a space,
followed by the new file name. Nothing else must be written to standard
output. If the file should not be renamed, nothing should be written to
standard output. Standard input and $1 will work like with the command
Default: 100. Output files less than this size will be deleted.
By default, recipes will not match on overlapping byte ranges.
allow_overlap disables this, and it should always be used for recipes where
the extracted file may be larger than it was on disk. If bytes is negative,
overlap checking will be completely disabled. Otherwise, overlap checking will
be in effect for everything but the last bytes of the output. For example,
if the output may be up to 512 bytes bigger than the input, allow_overlap
should be set to 512.
To test whether your recipe actually works, either just run it on your hard
disk or use the tools/checkrecipe script to pick out files that should match
If you have created a recipe that works, please mail it to me at email@example.com so
I can include it in the distribution.
WHEN TO NOT USE MAGIC RESCUE
Magic Rescue is not meant to be a universal application for file recovery. It
will give good results when you are extracting known file types from an
unusable file system, but for many other cases there are better tools
If there are intact partitions present somewhere, use gpart to find them.
If file system's internal data structures are more or less undamaged, use
The Sleuth Kit. At the time of writing, it only supports NTFS, FAT, ext
and FFS, though.
If Magic Rescue does not have a recipe for the file type you are trying to
recover, try foremost instead. It recognizes more file types, but in most
cases it extracts them simply by copying out a fixed number of bytes after it
has found the start of the file. This makes postprocessing the output files
In many cases you will want to use Magic Rescue in addition to the tools
mentioned above. They are not mutually exclusive, e.g. combining
magicrescue with dls from The Sleuth Kit could give good results. In
many cases you'll want to use magicrescue to extract its known file types
and another utility to extract the rest.
When combining the results of more than one tool, dupemap(1) can be used to
<http://foremost.sourceforge.net>. Does the same thing as magicrescue,
except that its ``recipes'' are less complex. Finding the end of the file must
happen by either matching an EOF string or just extracting a fixed number of
bytes every time. It supports more file types than Magic Rescue, but extracted
files usually have lots of trailing garbage, so removal of duplicates and
sorting by size is not possible.