maria - Modular Reachability Analyzer for high-level Petri nets
This manual page documents briefly the
More complete documentation is available in the GNU Info format; see
maria is a program that analyzes models of concurrent systems,
described in its input language that is based on Algebraic System Nets.
The formalism was presented by Ekkart Kindler and Hagen Völzer at
Flexibility in Algebraic Nets.
Algebraic System Nets is a framework that does not define any data
types or algebraic operations. The data type system and the
operations in Maria are designed with high-level programming and
specification languages in mind. Despite that, each Maria model has
a finite unfolding.
To ensure interoperability with low-level Petri net tools, Maria
translates identifiers in unfolded nets to strings of alpha-numerical
characters and underscores. The filter foldname.pl can be
used or adapted to improve the readability of the identifiers.
Maria follows the usual GNU command line syntax, with long options starting
with two dashes (`-').
A summary of options is included below.
For a complete description, see the Info files.
-a limit, --array-limit=limit
Limit the size of array index types to limit possible values. A
limit of 0 disables the checks.
-b model, --breadth-first-search=model
Generate the reachability graph of model using breadth-first
-C directory, --compile=directory
Generate C code in directory for evaluating expressions and for
the low-level routines of the transition instance analysis algorithm.
When this option is used, evaluation errors are reported in a slightly
different way. The interpreter displays the valuation and expression
that caused the first error in a state; the compiled code displays
the number of errors. For performance reasons, the generated code
does not check for overflow errors when adding items to multi-sets.
The opposite of -C. Evaluate all expressions in the built-in
interpreter. This is the default behavior.
-D symbol, --define=symbol
Define the preprocessor symbol symbol.
-d model, --depth-first-search=model
Generate the reachability graph of model using depth-first search.
-E interval, --edges=interval
When generating the reachability graph, report the size of the graph
after every interval generated edges.
-e string, --execute=string
-g graphfile, --graph=graphfile
Load a previously generated reachability graph from
-H h[,f[,t]], --hashes=h[,f[,t]]
Configure the parameters for probabilistic verification (-P).
Allocate t universal hash functions of f elements and
corresponding hash tables of h bits each. Both h and
f will be rounded up to next suitable values.
-?, -h, --help
Print a summary of the command-line options to Maria and exit.
-I directory, --include=directory
Append directory to the list of directories searched for include
-i columns, --width=columns
Set the right margin of the output to columns. The default is 80.
-j processes, --jobs=processes
When checking safety properties (options -L, -M and
-P), use this many worker processes to speed up the analysis on
a multiprocessor computer. See also -k and -Z.
-k port[/host], --connect=port[/host]
Distribute safety model checking (options -L, -M and
-P) in a TCP/IP network. For the server, only port is
specified as a 16-bit unsigned integer, usually between 1024 and
65535. For the worker processes, port/host
specifies the port and the address of the server. See also
-L model, --lossless=model
Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing a set of
reachable states in disk files. See also -M, -P,
-j and -k.
-m model, --model=model
Load model and clear its reachability graph.
-M model, --md5-compacted=model
Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing an
over-approximation of set of reachable states in the main memory. See
also -P, -L, -j and -k.
-N cregexp, --name=cregexp
Specify the names allowed in context c as the extended regular
expression regexp. The context is identified by the
first character of the parameter string; the succeeding characters
constitute the regular expression that allowed names must match.
-n cregexp, --no-name=cregexp
Specify the names not allowed in context c as the extended regular
If both -N and and -n are specified for a context c,
then the allowing match takes precedence. For instance, to require that
all user defined type names be terminated with _t, specify
-nt -Nt'_t$'. The quotes in the latter parameter are required to
remove the special meaning from $ in the command line shell you
are probably using to invoke Maria.
-P model, --probabilistic=model
Load model and prepare for analyzing it by constructing a set of
reachable states in the main memory by using a technique called
-p command, --property-translator=command
Specify the command to use for translating property automata. The
command should read a formula from the standard input and write a
corresponding automaton description to the standard output. The
translator lbt is compatible with this option.
-q limit, --quantification-limit=limit
Prevent quantification (multi-set sum) of types having more than
limit possible values. A limit of 0 disables the checks.
-U symbol, --undefine=symbol
Undefine the preprocessor symbol symbol.
-u [a][f[outfile]], --unfold=[a][f[outfile]]
Unfold the net using algorithm a and write it in format f to
outfile. If outfile is not specified, dump the unfolded net
to the standard output. Possible formats are m (Maria
(human-readable), default), l (LoLA), p (PEP), and
r (PROD). There are two algorithms: traditional (default) and
reduced by constructing a coverable marking (M).
Print the version number of Maria and exit.
Display verbose information on different stages of the analysis.
Enable warnings about suspicious net constructs. This is the default
The opposite of -W. Disable all warnings.
-x numberbase, --radix=numberbase
Specify the number base for diagnostic output. Allowed values for
numberbase are oct, octal, 8, hex,
hexadecimal, 16, dec, decimal and 10.
The default is to use decimal numbers.
Reduce the set of reachable states by not storing the successor states
of transitions instances for which a hide condition holds. The
hidden successors are stored to a separate state set. This option may
save memory (-L or -m) or reduce the probability that
states are omitted (-M or -P), and it may improve the
efficiency of parallel analysis (-j or -k), but it may
also considerably increase the processor time requirement. The option
also works with liveness model checking, but there is no guarantee
that the truth values of liveness properties remain unchanged. This
option can be combined with -Z.
The opposite of -Y. This is the default behavior.
Reduce the set of reachable states by not storing intermediate states
that have at most one successor. This option may save memory
(-L or -m) or reduce the probability that states are
omitted (-M or -P), and it may improve the efficiency of
parallel analysis (-j or -k), but it may also considerably
increase the processor time requirement. The option also works with
liveness model checking, but there is no guarantee that the truth
values of liveness properties remain unchanged. This option can be
combined with -Y.
Script for demangling identifiers in unfolded net output
The programs are documented fully by
available via the Info system.
This manual page was written by Marko Mäkelä <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Maria was written by
and some algorithms were designed by
Kimmo Varpaaniemi,Timo Latvala
Please see the copyright file in