script to automate the process of logging into a Cisco router,
catalyst switch, Extreme switch, Juniper ERX/E-series, Procket Networks,
or Redback router.
There are complementary scripts for
Bay Networks (nortel),
ADC-kentrox EZ-T3 mux,
HP Procurve Switches and Cisco AGMs,
MRV optical switch,
and Lucent TNT,
file for its configuration, then connects and logs into each of the
routers specified on the command line in the order listed. Command-line
options exist to override some of the directives found in the
The command-line options are as follows:
Save the configuration on exit, if the device prompts at logout time.
This only has affect when used with -s.
Prints package name and version strings.
Command to be run on each router list on the command-line. Multiple
commands maybe listed by separating them with semi-colons (;). The argument
should be quoted to avoid shell expansion.
Enable expect debugging.
Specifies a variable to pass through to scripts (-s). For example, the
command-line option -Efoo=bar will produce a global variable by the name
Efoo with the initial value "bar".
Specify a password to be supplied when gaining enable privileges on the
router(s). Also see the password directive of the
Specifies an alternate configuration file. The default is
Specifies a password associated with the user specified by the
option, user directive of the
file, or the Unix username of the user.
The filename of an
script which will be sourced after the login is successful and is expected
to return control to
with the connection to the router intact, when it is done. Note that
Example script(s) can be found in share/rancid/*.exp.
Alters the timeout interval; the period that
waits for an individual command to return a prompt or the login process to
produce a prompt or failure. The argument is in seconds.
Specifies the username used when prompted. The command-line option overrides
any user directive found in
The default is the current Unix username.
Specifies a vty password, that which is prompted for upon connection
to the router. This overrides the vty password of the
file's password directive.
Specifies the username used if prompted when gaining enable privileges. The
command-line option overrides any user or enauser directives found in
The default is the current Unix username.
Similar to the
specifies a file with commands to run on each of the routers. The commands
must not expect additional input, such as 'copy rcp startup-config' does.
Specifies the encryption algorithm for use with the
-c option. The default encryption type is often not supported. See the
man page for details. The default is 3des.
If the login script fails for any of the devices on the command-line, the
exit value of the script will be non-zero and the value will be the number
recognizes the following environment variables.
Overrides the user directive found in the
file, but may be overridden by the
will not change the banner on your xterm window if this includes the
Specifies an alternative location for the
file, like the -f option.
Normally set by
to the user's home directory,
HOME is used by
to locate the
expects CatOS devices to have a prompt which includes a '>',
such as "router> (enable)". It uses this to determine, for example,
whether the command to disable the pager is "set length 0" or "term length 0".
The HP Procurve switches that are Foundry OEMs use flogin, not hlogin.
The Extreme is supported by
but it has no concept of an "enabled" privilege level. You must
set autoenable for these devices in your
The -S option is a recent addition, it may not be supported in all of the
login scripts or for every target device.
Do not use greater than (>) or pound sign (#) in device banners. These
are the normal terminating characters of device prompts and the login
scripts need to locate the initial prompt. Afterward, the full prompt
is collected and makes a more precise match so that the scripts know
when the device is ready for the next command.
All these login scripts for separate devices should be rolled into one.
This goal is exceedingly difficult.
The HP Procurve switch, Motorola BSR, and Cisco AGM CLIs rely heavily upon
terminal escape codes for cursor/screen manipulation and assumes a vt100
They do not provide a way to set a different terminal type or adjust this
The resulting escape codes make automating interaction with these devices
very difficult or impossible.
Thus bin/hpuifilter, which must be found in the user's PATH, is used by
hlogin to filter these escape sequences.
While this works for rancid's collection, there are side effects for
interactive logins via hlogin; most of which are formatting annoyances that
may be remedied by typing CTRL-R to reprint the current line.
WARNING: repeated ssh login failures to HP Procurves cause the switch's
management interface to lock-up (this includes snmp, ping) and sometimes
it will crash. This is with the latest firmware; 5.33 at the time of this