If you are doing a backup on the server and your tables all are MyISAM tables, consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead because it can accomplish faster backups and faster restores. See mysqlhotcopy(1).
There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:
shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...] shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ... shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases
If you do not name any tables following db_name or if you use the --databases or --all-databases option, entire databases are dumped.
mysqldump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database by default. As of MySQL 5.1.38, mysqldump dumps INFORMATION_SCHEMA if you name it explicitly on the command line, although you must also use the --skip-lock-tables option. Before 5.1.38, mysqldump silently ignores INFORMATION_SCHEMA even if you name it explicitly on the command line.
In MySQL Cluster NDB 7.1.7 and later, the ndbinfo information database is ignored and not dumped by mysqldump.
To see a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports, execute mysqldump --help.
Some mysqldump options are shorthand for groups of other options:
To reverse the effect of a group option, uses its --skip-xxx form (--skip-opt or --skip-compact). It is also possible to select only part of the effect of a group option by following it with options that enable or disable specific features. Here are some examples:
When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option, order is important because options are processed first to last. For example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.
mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick option (or --opt, which enables --quick). The --opt option (and hence --quick) is enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering, use --skip-quick.
If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the --opt or --extended-insert option. Use --skip-opt instead.
mysqldump from MySQL 5.1.21 cannot be used to create dumps from MySQL server 5.1.20 and older. This issue is fixed in MySQL 5.1.22. (m[blue]Bug#30123m)
mysqldump supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqldump] and [client] option file groups. mysqldump also supports the options for processing option files described at Section 126.96.36.199.1, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".
Display a help message and exit.
Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the --all-databases or --databases option because no CREATE DATABASE statements are written unless one of those options is specified.
Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.
Add a DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER statement.
Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is reloaded. See Section 188.8.131.52, "Speed of INSERT Statements".
Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line.
Adds to a table dump all SQL statements needed to create any tablespaces used by an NDBCLUSTER table. This information is not otherwise included in the output from mysqldump. This option is currently relevant only to MySQL Cluster tables.
This option was added in MySQL 5.1.6.
Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by prefixing each column name with the table name.
On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this option can be used to select which interface is employed when connecting to the MySQL server.
This option is supported only in the version of mysqldump that is supplied with MySQL Cluster, beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.4. It is not available in standard MySQL 5.1 releases.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 9.5, "Character Set Configuration".
Write additional information in the dump file such as program version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by default. To suppress this additional information, use --skip-comments.
Produce more compact output. This option enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments, --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-set-charset options.
Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi, mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL mode. See Section 5.1.7, "Server SQL Modes".
This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment syntax.
This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older servers, it does nothing.
Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.
Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE statements.
Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names. CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are included in the output before each new database.
Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is 'd:t:o,file_name'. The default value is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysqldump.trace'.
Print some debugging information when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.14.
Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 9.5, "Character Set Configuration". If no character set is specified, mysqldump uses utf8, and earlier versions use latin1.
Prior to MySQL 5.1.38, this option has no effect for output data files produced by using the --tab option. See the description for that option.
Write INSERT DELAYED statements rather than INSERT statements.
On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending a PURGE BINARY LOGS statement to the server after performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables --master-data.
For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file faster because the indexes are created after all rows are inserted. This option is effective only for nonunique indexes of MyISAM tables.
If the --comments option is given, mysqldump produces a comment at the end of the dump of the following form:
-- Dump completed on DATE
However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical. --dump-date and --skip-dump-date control whether the date is added to the comment. The default is --dump-date (include the date in the comment). --skip-dump-date suppresses date printing. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.23.
Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the output. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.8.
Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists. This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the file is reloaded.
These options are used with the --tab option and have the same meaning as the corresponding FIELDS clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 12.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".
Deprecated. Use --lock-all-tables instead. --first-slave is removed in MySQL 5.5.
Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This option requires the RELOAD privilege. If you use this option in combination with the --all-databases option, the logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: In this case, the logs are flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with either --lock-all-tables or --master-data.
Send a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement to the server after dumping the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on the data in the mysql database for proper restoration. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.12.
Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.
One use for this option is to cause mysqldump to continue executing even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because the definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without --force, mysqldump exits with an error message. With --force, mysqldump prints the error message, but it also writes an SQL comment containing the view definition to the dump output and continues executing.
Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host is localhost.
Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY, the BLOB types, and BIT.
Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore views.
Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.
This option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding LINES clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 12.2.6, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".
Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.
For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before dumping them. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to permit concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For transactional tables such as InnoDB, --single-transaction is a much better option than --lock-tables because it does not need to lock the tables at all.
Because --lock-tables locks tables for each database separately, this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in completely different states.
Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The default is to do no logging. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.18.
Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of the master. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and position) of the dumped server. These are the master server coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you load the dump file into the slave.
If the option value is 2, the CHANGE MASTER TO statement is written as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no effect when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when the dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default value is 1.
This option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must be enabled.
The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction also is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the description for --single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump.
It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave of the master. To do this, use the following procedure on the existing slave:
mysql> STOP SLAVE SQL_THREAD; mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS;
shell> mysqldump --master-data=2 --all-databases > dumpfile
mysql> START SLAVE;
shell> mysql < dumpfile
mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO -> MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'file_name', MASTER_LOG_POS = file_pos;
The CHANGE MASTER TO statement might also need other parameters, such as MASTER_HOST to point the slave to the correct master server host. Add any such parameters as necessary.
Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements.
This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE statements that are otherwise included in the output if the --databases or --all-databases option is given.
Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped table.
Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table contents). This is useful if you want to dump only the CREATE TABLE statement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of the table by loading the dump file).
This has the same effect as --skip-set-charset.
This option suppresses all CREATE LOGFILE GROUP and CREATE TABLESPACE statements in the output of mysqldump.
This option was added in MySQL 5.1.14.
This option is shorthand. It is the same as specifying --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.
The --opt option is enabled by default. Use --skip-opt to disable it. See the discussion at the beginning of this section for information about selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the options affected by --opt.
Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make the dump operation take considerably longer.
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqldump prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 184.108.40.206, "End-User Guidelines for Password Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL Server".
This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before writing it out.
Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names) within "`" characters. If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled, identifiers are quoted within """ characters. This option is enabled by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this option should be given after any option such as --compatible that may enable --quote-names.
Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.3.
Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on Windows to prevent newline "\n" characters from being converted to "\r\n" carriage return/newline sequences. The result file is created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while generating the dump.
Included stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. Use of this option requires the SELECT privilege for the mysql.proc table. The output generated by using --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION statements to re-create the routines. However, these statements do not include attributes such as the routine creation and modification timestamps. This means that when the routines are reloaded, they will be created with the timestamps equal to the reload time.
If you require routines to be re-created with their original timestamp attributes, do not use --routines. Instead, dump and reload the contents of the mysql.proc table directly, using a MySQL account that has appropriate privileges for the mysql database.
This option was added in MySQL 5.1.2. Before that, stored routines are not dumped. Routine DEFINER values are not dumped until MySQL 5.1.8. This means that before 5.1.8, when routines are reloaded, they will be created with the definer set to the reloading user. If you require routines to be re-created with their original definer, dump and load the contents of the mysql.proc table directly as described earlier.
Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use --skip-set-charset.
This option sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the database at the time when BEGIN was issued without blocking any applications.
When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change state.
While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log coordinates), no other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE. A consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of them on a table to be dumped can cause the SELECT that is performed by mysqldump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect contents or fail.
The --single-transaction option and the --lock-tables option are mutually exclusive because LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed implicitly.
This option is not supported for MySQL Cluster tables; the results cannot be guaranteed to be consistent due to the fact that the NDBCLUSTER storage engine supports only the READ_COMMITTED transaction isolation level. You should always use NDB backup and restore instead.
To dump large tables, you should combine the --single-transaction option with --quick.
See the description for the --comments option.
See the description for the --opt option.
For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.
Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 220.127.116.11, "SSL Command Options".
Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE statement that creates the table, and the server writes a tbl_name.txt file that contains its data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.
As of MySQL 5.1.38, column values are converted to the character set specified by the --default-character-set option. Prior to 5.1.38 or if no such option is present, values are dumped using the binary character set. In effect, there is no character set conversion. If a table contains columns in several character sets, the output data file will as well and you may not be able to reload the file correctly.
Override the --databases or -B option. mysqldump regards all name arguments following the option as table names.
Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers.
This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded between servers in different time zones. mysqldump sets its connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in different time zones. --tz-utc also protects against changes due to daylight saving time. --tz-utc is enabled by default. To disable it, use --skip-tz-utc. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.2.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Display version information and exit.
Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.
--where="user='jimf'" -w"userid>1" -w"userid<1"
Write dump output as well-formed XML.
NULL, 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column named column_name, the NULL value, an empty string, and the string value 'NULL' are distinguished from one another in the output generated by this option as follows.
|NULL (unknown value)||
<field name="column_name" xsi:nil="true" />
|'' (empty string)||
|'NULL' (string value)||
Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, the output from the mysql client when run using the --xml option also follows the preceding rules. (See the section called "MYSQL OPTIONS".)
Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, XML output from mysqldump includes the XML namespace, as shown here:
shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City <?xml version="1.0"?> <mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"> <database name="world"> <table_structure name="City"> <field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" /> <field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /> <field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /> <field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" /> <field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" /> <key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID" Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" /> <options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079" Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951" Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080" Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02" Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" /> </table_structure> <table_data name="City"> <row> <field name="ID">1</field> <field name="Name">Kabul</field> <field name="CountryCode">AFG</field> <field name="District">Kabol</field> <field name="Population">1780000</field> </row> ... <row> <field name="ID">4079</field> <field name="Name">Rafah</field> <field name="CountryCode">PSE</field> <field name="District">Rafah</field> <field name="Population">92020</field> </row> </table_data> </database> </mysqldump>
You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value syntax:
The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The maximum is 1GB.
The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the --extended-insert or --opt option), mysqldump creates rows up to net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server is at least this large.
A common use of mysqldump is for making a backup of an entire database:
shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql
You can load the dump file back into the server like this:
shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql
Or like this:
shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name
mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data from one MySQL server to another:
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name
It is possible to dump several databases with one command:
shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql
To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql
For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql
This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (using FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and the lock is released. If long updating statements are running when the FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and does not disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of execution time), the initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.
For point-in-time recovery (also known as "roll-forward," when you need to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see Section 5.2.4, "The Binary Log") or at least know the binary log coordinates to which the dump corresponds:
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online backup suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are stored using the InnoDB storage engine.
For more information on making backups, see Section 6.2, "Database Backup Methods", and Section 6.3, "Example Backup and Recovery Strategy".
If you encounter problems backing up views, please read the section that covers restrictions on views which describes a workaround for backing up views when this fails due to insufficient privileges. See Section E.4, "Restrictions on Views".
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