#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/shm.h> void *shmat(int shmid, const void *shmaddr, int shmflg); int shmdt(const void *shmaddr);
If shmaddr is NULL, the system chooses a suitable (unused) address at which to attach the segment.
If shmaddr isn't NULL and SHM_RND is specified in shmflg, the attach occurs at the address equal to shmaddr rounded down to the nearest multiple of SHMLBA. Otherwise shmaddr must be a page-aligned address at which the attach occurs.
If SHM_RDONLY is specified in shmflg, the segment is attached for reading and the process must have read permission for the segment. Otherwise the segment is attached for read and write and the process must have read and write permission for the segment. There is no notion of a write-only shared memory segment.
The (Linux-specific) SHM_REMAP flag may be specified in shmflg to indicate that the mapping of the segment should replace any existing mapping in the range starting at shmaddr and continuing for the size of the segment. (Normally an EINVAL error would result if a mapping already exists in this address range.) In this case, shmaddr must not be NULL.
The brk(2) value of the calling process is not altered by the attach. The segment will automatically be detached at process exit. The same segment may be attached as a read and as a read-write one, and more than once, in the process's address space.
A successful shmat() call updates the members of the shmid_ds structure (see shmctl(2)) associated with the shared memory segment as follows:
shmdt() detaches the shared memory segment located at the address specified by shmaddr from the address space of the calling process. The to-be-detached segment must be currently attached with shmaddr equal to the value returned by the attaching shmat() call.
On a successful shmdt() call the system updates the members of the shmid_ds structure associated with the shared memory segment as follows:
After a fork(2) the child inherits the attached shared memory segments.
After an execve(2) all attached shared memory segments are detached from the process.
Upon _exit(2) all attached shared memory segments are detached from the process.
On success shmdt() returns 0; on error -1 is returned, and errno is set to indicate the cause of the error.
When shmdt() fails, errno is set as follows:
In SVID 3 (or perhaps earlier) the type of the shmaddr argument was changed from char * into const void *, and the returned type of shmat() from char * into void *. (Linux libc4 and libc5 have the char * prototypes; glibc2 has void *.)
On Linux, it is possible to attach a shared memory segment even if it is already marked to be deleted. However, POSIX.1-2001 does not specify this behavior and many other implementations do not support it.
The following system parameter affects shmat():
The implementation places no intrinsic limit on the per-process maximum number of shared memory segments (SHMSEG).