function has the same effect as
except that the behavior is undefined if the process created by
either modifies any data other than a variable of type
used to store the return value from
or returns from the function in which
was called, or calls any other function before successfully calling
or one of the
family of functions.
creates a child process of the calling process.
For details and return value and errors, see
is a special case of
It is used to create new processes without copying the page tables of
the parent process.
It may be useful in performance-sensitive applications
where a child is created which then immediately issues an
in that the parent is suspended until the child terminates
or abnormally, after delivery of a fatal signal),
or it makes a call to
Until that point, the child shares all memory with its parent,
including the stack.
The child must not return from the current function or call
but may call
Signal handlers are inherited, but not shared.
Signals to the parent
arrive after the child releases the parent's memory
(i.e., after the child terminates
is implemented using copy-on-write pages, so the only penalty incurred by
is the time and memory required to duplicate the parent's page tables,
and to create a unique task structure for the child.
However, in the bad old days a
would require making a complete copy of the caller's data space,
often needlessly, since usually immediately afterwards an
Thus, for greater efficiency, BSD introduced the
system call, which did not fully copy the address space of
the parent process, but borrowed the parent's memory and thread
of control until a call to
or an exit occurred.
The parent process was suspended while the
child was using its resources.
The use of
was tricky: for example, not modifying data
in the parent process depended on knowing which variables were
held in a register.
POSIX.1-2008 removes the specification of
The requirements put on
by the standards are weaker than those put on
so an implementation where the two are synonymous is compliant.
In particular, the programmer cannot rely on the parent
remaining blocked until the child either terminates or calls
and cannot rely on any specific behavior with respect to shared memory.
Fork handlers established using
are not called when a multithreaded program employing
the NPTL threading library calls
Fork handlers are called in this case in a program using the
LinuxThreads threading library.
for a description of Linux threading libraries.)
system call appeared in 3.0BSD.
In 4.4BSD it was made synonymous to
but NetBSD introduced it again,
cf. http://www.netbsd.org/Documentation/kernel/vfork.html .
In Linux, it has been equivalent to
until 2.2.0-pre6 or so.
Since 2.2.0-pre9 (on i386, somewhat later on
other architectures) it is an independent system call.
Support was added in glibc 2.0.112.
It is rather unfortunate that Linux revived this specter from the past.
The BSD man page states:
"This system call will be eliminated when proper system sharing mechanisms
Users should not depend on the memory sharing semantics of
as it will, in that case, be made synonymous to
Details of the signal handling are obscure and differ between systems.
The BSD man page states:
"To avoid a possible deadlock situation, processes that are children
in the middle of a
are never sent
signals; rather, output or
are allowed and input attempts result in an end-of-file indication."