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gg-tree

gg-tree

Section: GGI (3) Updated: 2005-08-26
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NAME

gg-tree, GG_SPLAY_PROTOTYPE, GG_SPLAY_GENERATE, GG_SPLAY_ENTRY, GG_SPLAY_HEAD, GG_SPLAY_INITIALIZER, GG_SPLAY_ROOT, GG_SPLAY_EMPTY, GG_SPLAY_NEXT, GG_SPLAY_MIN, GG_SPLAY_MAX, GG_SPLAY_FIND, GG_SPLAY_LEFT, GG_SPLAY_RIGHT, GG_SPLAY_FOREACH, GG_SPLAY_INIT, GG_SPLAY_INSERT, GG_SPLAY_REMOVE, GG_RB_PROTOTYPE, GG_RB_GENERATE, GG_RB_ENTRY, GG_RB_HEAD, GG_RB_INITIALIZER, GG_RB_ROOT, GG_RB_EMPTY, GG_RB_NEXT, GG_RB_MIN, GG_RB_MAX, GG_RB_FIND, GG_RB_LEFT, GG_RB_RIGHT, GG_RB_PARENT, GG_RB_FOREACH, GG_RB_INIT, GG_RB_INSERT, GG_RB_REMOVE - implementations of splay and red-black trees  

SYNOPSIS

#include <ggi/gg-tree.h>

GG_SPLAY_PROTOTYPE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

GG_SPLAY_GENERATE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

GG_SPLAY_ENTRY(TYPE);

GG_SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_INITIALIZER(GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

GG_SPLAY_ROOT(GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

bool
GG_SPLAY_EMPTY(GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_MIN(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_MAX(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_FIND(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_LEFT(struct TYPE *elm, GG_SPLAY_ENTRY NAME);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_RIGHT(struct TYPE *elm, GG_SPLAY_ENTRY NAME);

GG_SPLAY_FOREACH(VARNAME, NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

void
GG_SPLAY_INIT(GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_INSERT(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, GG_SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

GG_RB_PROTOTYPE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

GG_RB_GENERATE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

GG_RB_ENTRY(TYPE);

GG_RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

GG_RB_INITIALIZER(GG_RB_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_ROOT(GG_RB_HEAD *head);

bool
GG_RB_EMPTY(GG_RB_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_NEXT(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_MIN(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_MAX(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_FIND(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_LEFT(struct TYPE *elm, GG_RB_ENTRY NAME);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_RIGHT(struct TYPE *elm, GG_RB_ENTRY NAME);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_PARENT(struct TYPE *elm, GG_RB_ENTRY NAME);

GG_RB_FOREACH(VARNAME, NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head);

void
GG_RB_INIT(GG_RB_HEAD *head);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_INSERT(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

struct TYPE *
GG_RB_REMOVE(NAME, GG_RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

 

DESCRIPTION

These macros define data structures for different types of trees: splay trees and red-black trees.

In the macro definitions, TYPE is the name tag of a user defined structure that must contain a field of type GG_SPLAY_ENTRY, or GG_RB_ENTRY, named ENTRYNAME. The argument HEADNAME is the name tag of a user defined structure that must be declared using the macros GG_SPLAY_HEAD or GG_RB_HEAD. The argument NAME has to be a unique name prefix for every tree that is defined.

The function prototypes are declared with either GG_SPLAY_PROTOTYPE or GG_RB_PROTOTYPE. The function bodies are generated with either GG_SPLAY_GENERATE or GG_RB_GENERATE. See the examples below for further explanation of how these macros are used.  

SPLAY TREES

A splay tree is a self-organizing data structure. Every operation on the tree causes a splay to happen. The splay moves the requested node to the root of the tree and partly rebalances it.

This has the benefit that request locality causes faster lookups as the requested nodes move to the top of the tree. On the other hand, every lookup causes memory writes.

The Balance Theorem bounds the total access time for m operations and n inserts on an initially empty tree as O((m + n)lg n). The amortized cost for a sequence of m accesses to a splay tree is O(lg n).

A splay tree is headed by a structure defined by the SPLAY_HEAD macro. A GG_SPLAY_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

GG_SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and struct TYPE is the type of the elements to be inserted into the tree.

The GG_SPLAY_ENTRY macro declares a structure that allows elements to be connected in the tree.

In order to use the functions that manipulate the tree structure, their prototypes need to be declared with the GG_SPLAY_PROTOTYPE macro, where NAME is a unique identifier for this particular tree. The TYPE argument is the type of the structure that is being managed by the tree. The FIELD argument is the name of the element defined by GG_SPLAY_ENTRY.

The function bodies are generated with the GG_SPLAY_GENERATE macro. It takes the same arguments as the GG_SPLAY_PROTOTYPE macro, but should be used only once.

Finally, the CMP argument is the name of a function used to compare trees noded with each other. The function takes two arguments of type struct TYPE *. If the first argument is smaller than the second, the function returns a value smaller than zero. If they are equal, the function returns zero. Otherwise, it should return a value greater than zero. The compare function defines the order of the tree elements.

The GG_SPLAY_INIT macro initializes the tree referenced by head.

The splay tree can also be initialized statically by using the GG_SPLAY_INITIALIZER macro like this:

GG_SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head = GG_SPLAY_INITIALIZER(&head);

The GG_SPLAY_INSERT macro inserts the new element elm into the tree.

The GG_SPLAY_REMOVE macro removes the element elm from the tree pointed by head.

The GG_SPLAY_FIND macro can be used to find a particular element in the tree.:

struct TYPE find, *res;
find.key = 30;
res = GG_SPLAY_FIND(NAME, head, &find);

The GG_SPLAY_ROOT, GG_SPLAY_MIN, GG_SPLAY_MAX, and GG_SPLAY_NEXT macros can be used to traverse the tree:

for (np = GG_SPLAY_MIN(NAME, &head); np != NULL; np = GG_SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, &head, np))

Or, for simplicity, one can use the GG_SPLAY_FOREACH macro:

GG_SPLAY_FOREACH(np, NAME, head)

The GG_SPLAY_EMPTY macro should be used to check whether a splay tree is empty.  

RED-BLACK TREES

A red-black tree is a binary search tree with the node color as an extra attribute. It fulfills a set of conditions:
1
every search path from the root to a leaf consists of the same number of black nodes,
2
each red node (except for the root) has a black parent,
3
each leaf node is black.

Every operation on a red-black tree is bounded as O(lg n). The maximum height of a red-black tree is 2lg (n+1).

A red-black tree is headed by a structure defined by the GG_RB_HEAD macro. A GG_RB_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

GG_RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and struct TYPE is the type of the elements to be inserted into the tree.

The GG_RB_ENTRY macro declares a structure that allows elements to be connected in the tree.

In order to use the functions that manipulate the tree structure, their prototypes need to be declared with the GG_RB_PROTOTYPE macro, where NAME is a unique identifier for this particular tree. The TYPE argument is the type of the structure that is being managed by the tree. The FIELD argument is the name of the element defined by GG_RB_ENTRY.

The function bodies are generated with the GG_RB_GENERATE macro. It takes the same arguments as the GG_RB_PROTOTYPE macro, but should be used only once.

Finally, the CMP argument is the name of a function used to compare trees noded with each other. The function takes two arguments of type struct TYPE *. If the first argument is smaller than the second, the function returns a value smaller than zero. If they are equal, the function returns zero. Otherwise, it should return a value greater than zero. The compare function defines the order of the tree elements.

The GG_RB_INIT macro initializes the tree referenced by head.

The redblack tree can also be initialized statically by using the GG_RB_INITIALIZER macro like this:

GG_RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head = GG_RB_INITIALIZER(&head);

The GG_RB_INSERT macro inserts the new element elm into the tree.

The GG_RB_REMOVE macro removes the element elm from the tree pointed by head.

The GG_RB_FIND macro can be used to find a particular element in the tree.:

struct TYPE find, *res;
find.key = 30;
res = GG_RB_FIND(NAME, head, &find);

The GG_RB_ROOT, GG_RB_MIN, GG_RB_MAX, and GG_RB_NEXT macros can be used to traverse the tree:

for (np = RB_MIN(NAME, &head); np != NULL; np = RB_NEXT(NAME, &head, np))

Or, for simplicity, one can use the RB_FOREACH macro:

GG_RB_FOREACH(np, NAME, head)

The GG_RB_EMPTY macro should be used to check whether a red-black tree is empty.  

NOTES

Trying to free a tree in the following way is a common error:

GG_SPLAY_FOREACH(var, NAME, head) {
        GG_SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, head, var);
        free(var);
}
free(head);

Since var is free'd, the FOREACH macro refers to a pointer that may have been reallocated already. Proper code needs a second variable.:

for (var = GG_SPLAY_MIN(NAME, head); var != NULL; var = nxt) {
        nxt = GG_SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, head, var);
        GG_SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, head, var);
        free(var);
}

Both GG_RB_INSERT and GG_SPLAY_INSERT return NULL if the element was inserted in the tree successfully, otherwise they return a pointer to the element with the colliding key.

Accordingly, GG_RB_REMOVE and GG_SPLAY_REMOVE return the pointer to the removed element, otherwise they return NULL to indicate an error.  

SEE ALSO

gg-queue(3)


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SPLAY TREES
RED-BLACK TREES
NOTES
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 21:46:53 GMT, April 16, 2011