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Section: RXVT-UNICODE (3) Updated: 2010-12-09
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urxvtperl - rxvt-unicode's embedded perl interpreter  


   # create a file grab_test in $HOME:

   sub on_sel_grab {
      warn "you selected ", $_[0]->selection;

   # start a urxvt using it:

   urxvt --perl-lib $HOME -pe grab_test



Every time a terminal object gets created, extension scripts specified via the "perl" resource are loaded and associated with it.

Scripts are compiled in a 'use strict' and 'use utf8' environment, and thus must be encoded as UTF-8.

Each script will only ever be loaded once, even in urxvtd, where scripts will be shared (but not enabled) for all terminals.

You can disable the embedded perl interpreter by setting both ``perl-ext'' and ``perl-ext-common'' resources to the empty string.  


This section describes the extensions delivered with this release. You can find them in /usr/lib/urxvt/perl/.

You can activate them like this:

  urxvt -pe <extensionname>

Or by adding them to the resource for extensions loaded by default:

  URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,selection-autotransform

selection (enabled by default)
(More) intelligent selection. This extension tries to be more intelligent when the user extends selections (double-click and further clicks). Right now, it tries to select words, urls and complete shell-quoted arguments, which is very convenient, too, if your ls supports "--quoting-style=shell".

A double-click usually selects the word under the cursor, further clicks will enlarge the selection.

The selection works by trying to match a number of regexes and displaying them in increasing order of length. You can add your own regexes by specifying resources of the form:

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: perl-regex
   URxvt.selection.pattern-1: perl-regex

The index number (0, 1...) must not have any holes, and each regex must contain at least one pair of capturing parentheses, which will be used for the match. For example, the following adds a regex that matches everything between two vertical bars:

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: \\|([^|]+)\\|

Another example: Programs I use often output ``absolute path: '' at the beginning of a line when they process multiple files. The following pattern matches the filename (note, there is a single space at the very end):

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ^(/[^:]+):\

You can look at the source of the selection extension to see more interesting uses, such as parsing a line from beginning to end.

This extension also offers following bindable keyboard commands:

Rot-13 the selection when activated. Used via keyboard trigger:

   URxvt.keysym.C-M-r: perl:selection:rot13

option-popup (enabled by default)
Binds a popup menu to Ctrl-Button2 that lets you toggle (some) options at runtime.

Other extensions can extend this popup menu by pushing a code reference onto "@{ $term-"{option_popup_hook} }>, which gets called whenever the popup is being displayed.

Its sole argument is the popup menu, which can be modified. It should either return nothing or a string, the initial boolean value and a code reference. The string will be used as button text and the code reference will be called when the toggle changes, with the new boolean value as first argument.

The following will add an entry "myoption" that changes "$self->{myoption}":

   push @{ $self->{term}{option_popup_hook} }, sub {
      ("my option" => $myoption, sub { $self->{myoption} = $_[0] })

selection-popup (enabled by default)
Binds a popup menu to Ctrl-Button3 that lets you convert the selection text into various other formats/action (such as uri unescaping, perl evaluation, web-browser starting etc.), depending on content.

Other extensions can extend this popup menu by pushing a code reference onto "@{ $term-"{selection_popup_hook} }>, which gets called whenever the popup is being displayed.

Its sole argument is the popup menu, which can be modified. The selection is in $_, which can be used to decide whether to add something or not. It should either return nothing or a string and a code reference. The string will be used as button text and the code reference will be called when the button gets activated and should transform $_.

The following will add an entry "a to b" that transforms all "a"s in the selection to "b"s, but only if the selection currently contains any "a"s:

   push @{ $self->{term}{selection_popup_hook} }, sub {
      /a/ ? ("a to b" => sub { s/a/b/g }
          : ()

searchable-scrollback<hotkey> (enabled by default)
Adds regex search functionality to the scrollback buffer, triggered by a hotkey (default: "M-s"). While in search mode, normal terminal input/output is suspended and a regex is displayed at the bottom of the screen.

Inputting characters appends them to the regex and continues incremental search. "BackSpace" removes a character from the regex, "Up" and "Down" search upwards/downwards in the scrollback buffer, "End" jumps to the bottom. "Escape" leaves search mode and returns to the point where search was started, while "Enter" or "Return" stay at the current position and additionally stores the first match in the current line into the primary selection if the "Shift" modifier is active.

The regex defaults to ``(?i)'', resulting in a case-insensitive search. To get a case-sensitive search you can delete this prefix using "BackSpace" or simply use an uppercase character which removes the ``(?i)'' prefix.

See perlre for more info about perl regular expression syntax.

readline (enabled by default)
A support package that tries to make editing with readline easier. At the moment, it reacts to clicking shift-left mouse button by trying to move the text cursor to this position. It does so by generating as many cursor-left or cursor-right keypresses as required (this only works for programs that correctly support wide characters).

To avoid too many false positives, this is only done when:

- the tty is in ICANON state.
- the text cursor is visible.
- the primary screen is currently being displayed.
- the mouse is on the same (multi-row-) line as the text cursor.

The normal selection mechanism isn't disabled, so quick successive clicks might interfere with selection creation in harmless ways.

This selection allows you to do automatic transforms on a selection whenever a selection is made.

It works by specifying perl snippets (most useful is a single "s///" operator) that modify $_ as resources:

   URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: transform
   URxvt.selection-autotransform.1: transform

For example, the following will transform selections of the form "filename:number", often seen in compiler messages, into "vi +$filename $word":

   URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: s/^([^:[:space:]]+):(\\d+):?$/vi +$2 \\Q$1\\E\\x0d/

And this example matches the same,but replaces it with vi-commands you can paste directly into your (vi :) editor:

   URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: s/^([^:[:space:]]+(\\d+):?$/:e \\Q$1\\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/

Of course, this can be modified to suit your needs and your editor :)

To expand the example above to typical perl error messages (``XXX at FILENAME line YYY.''), you need a slightly more elaborate solution:

   URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ( at .*? line \\d+[,.])
   URxvt.selection-autotransform.0: s/^ at (.*?) line (\\d+)[,.]$/:e \\Q$1\E\\x0d:$2\\x0d/

The first line tells the selection code to treat the unchanging part of every error message as a selection pattern, and the second line transforms the message into vi commands to load the file.

This transforms the terminal into a tabbar with additional terminals, that is, it implements what is commonly referred to as ``tabbed terminal''. The topmost line displays a ``[NEW]'' button, which, when clicked, will add a new tab, followed by one button per tab.

Clicking a button will activate that tab. Pressing Shift-Left and Shift-Right will switch to the tab left or right of the current one, while Shift-Down creates a new tab.

The tabbar itself can be configured similarly to a normal terminal, but with a resource class of "URxvt.tabbed". In addition, it supports the following four resources (shown with defaults):

   URxvt.tabbed.tabbar-fg: <colour-index, default 3>
   URxvt.tabbed.tabbar-bg: <colour-index, default 0>    <colour-index, default 0>    <colour-index, default 1>

See COLOR AND GRAPHICS in the urxvt(1) manpage for valid indices.

Uses per-line display filtering ("on_line_update") to underline text matching a certain pattern and make it clickable. When clicked with the mouse button specified in the "matcher.button" resource (default 2, or middle), the program specified in the "matcher.launcher" resource (default, the "urlLauncher" resource, "sensible-browser") will be started with the matched text as first argument. The default configuration is suitable for matching URLs and launching a web browser, like the former ``mark-urls'' extension.

The default pattern to match URLs can be overridden with the "matcher.pattern.0" resource, and additional patterns can be specified with numbered patterns, in a manner similar to the ``selection'' extension. The launcher can also be overridden on a per-pattern basis.

It is possible to activate the most recently seen match from the keyboard. Simply bind a keysym to ``perl:matcher'' as seen in the example below.

Example configuration:

    URxvt.perl-ext:           default,matcher
    URxvt.urlLauncher:        sensible-browser
    URxvt.keysym.C-Delete:    perl:matcher
    URxvt.matcher.button:     1
    URxvt.matcher.pattern.1:  \\bwww\\.[\\w-]+\\.[\\w./?&@#-]*[\\w/-]
    URxvt.matcher.pattern.2:  \\B(/\\S+?):(\\d+)(?=:|$)
    URxvt.matcher.launcher.2: gvim +$2 $1

This (experimental) perl extension implements OnTheSpot editing. It does not work perfectly, and some input methods don't seem to work well with OnTheSpot editing in general, but it seems to work at least for SCIM and kinput2.

You enable it by specifying this extension and a preedit style of "OnTheSpot", i.e.:

   urxvt -pt OnTheSpot -pe xim-onthespot

A very primitive quake-console-like extension. It was inspired by a description of how the programs "kuake" and "yakuake" work: Whenever the user presses a global accelerator key (by default "F10"), the terminal will show or hide itself. Another press of the accelerator key will hide or show it again.

Initially, the window will not be shown when using this extension.

This is useful if you need a single terminal that is not using any desktop space most of the time but is quickly available at the press of a key.

The accelerator key is grabbed regardless of any modifiers, so this extension will actually grab a physical key just for this function.

If you want a quake-like animation, tell your window manager to do so (fvwm can do it).

This extension implements some OSC commands to display timed popups on the screen - useful for status displays from within scripts. You have to read the sources for more info.
A not very useful example of filtering all text output to the terminal by replacing all line-drawing characters (U+2500 .. U+259F) by a similar-looking ascii character.
Displays a digital clock using the built-in overlay.
Somewhat of a misnomer, this extension adds two menu entries to the selection popup that allows one to run external commands to store the selection somewhere and fetch it again.

We use it to implement a ``distributed selection mechanism'', which just means that one command uploads the file to a remote server, and another reads it.

The commands can be set using the "" and "URxvt.remote-selection.fetch" resources. The first should read the selection to store from STDIN (always in UTF-8), the second should provide the selection data on STDOUT (also in UTF-8).

The defaults (which are likely useless to you) use rsh and cat: rsh ruth 'cat >/tmp/distributed-selection'
   URxvt.remote-selection.fetch: rsh ruth 'cat /tmp/distributed-selection'

This is a little rarely useful extension that uploads the selection as textfile to a remote site (or does other things). (The implementation is not currently secure for use in a multiuser environment as it writes to /tmp directly.).

It listens to the "selection-pastebin:remote-pastebin" keyboard command, i.e.

   URxvt.keysym.C-M-e: perl:selection-pastebin:remote-pastebin

Pressing this combination runs a command with "%" replaced by the name of the textfile. This command can be set via a resource:

   URxvt.selection-pastebin.cmd: rsync -apP % ruth:/var/www/

And the default is likely not useful to anybody but the few people around here :)

The name of the textfile is the hex encoded md5 sum of the selection, so the same content should lead to the same filename.

After a successful upload the selection will be replaced by the text given in the "selection-pastebin-url" resource (again, the % is the placeholder for the filename):


Note to xrdb users: xrdb uses the C preprocessor, which might interpret the double "/" characters as comment start. Use "\057\057" instead, which works regardless of whether xrdb is used to parse the resource file or not.

macosx-clipboard and macosx-clipboard-native
These two modules implement an extended clipboard for Mac OS X. They are used like this:

   URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,macosx-clipboard
   URxvt.keysym.M-c: perl:macosx-clipboard:copy
   URxvt.keysym.M-v: perl:macosx-clipboard:paste

The difference between them is that the native variant requires a perl from apple's devkit or so, and "macosx-clipboard" requires the "Mac::Pasteboard" module, works with other perls, has fewer bugs, is simpler etc. etc.

Displays a very simple digital clock in the upper right corner of the window. Illustrates overwriting the refresh callbacks to create your own overlays or changes.
Displays a confirmation dialog when a paste containing at least a full line is detected.



General API Considerations

All objects (such as terminals, time watchers etc.) are typical reference-to-hash objects. The hash can be used to store anything you like. All members starting with an underscore (such as "_ptr" or "_hook") are reserved for internal uses and MUST NOT be accessed or modified).

When objects are destroyed on the C++ side, the perl object hashes are emptied, so its best to store related objects such as time watchers and the like inside the terminal object so they get destroyed as soon as the terminal is destroyed.

Argument names also often indicate the type of a parameter. Here are some hints on what they mean:

Rxvt-unicode's special way of encoding text, where one ``unicode'' character always represents one screen cell. See ROW_t for a discussion of this format.
A perl text string, with an emphasis on text. It can store all unicode characters and is to be distinguished with text encoded in a specific encoding (often locale-specific) and binary data.
Either binary data or - more common - a text string encoded in a locale-specific way.

Extension Objects

Every perl extension is a perl class. A separate perl object is created for each terminal, and each terminal has its own set of extenion objects, which are passed as the first parameter to hooks. So extensions can use their $self object without having to think about clashes with other extensions or other terminals, with the exception of methods and members that begin with an underscore character "_": these are reserved for internal use.

Although it isn't a "urxvt::term" object, you can call all methods of the "urxvt::term" class on this object.

It has the following methods and data members:

$urxvt_term = $self->{term}
Returns the "urxvt::term" object associated with this instance of the extension. This member must not be changed in any way.
$self->enable ($hook_name => $cb, [$hook_name => $cb..])
Dynamically enable the given hooks (named without the "on_" prefix) for this extension, replacing any previous hook. This is useful when you want to overwrite time-critical hooks only temporarily.
$self->disable ($hook_name[, $hook_name..])
Dynamically disable the given hooks.


The following subroutines can be declared in extension files, and will be called whenever the relevant event happens.

The first argument passed to them is an extension object as described in the in the "Extension Objects" section.

All of these hooks must return a boolean value. If any of the called hooks returns true, then the event counts as being consumed, and the relevant action might not be carried out by the C++ code.

When in doubt, return a false value (preferably "()").

on_init $term
Called after a new terminal object has been initialized, but before windows are created or the command gets run. Most methods are unsafe to call or deliver senseless data, as terminal size and other characteristics have not yet been determined. You can safely query and change resources and options, though. For many purposes the "on_start" hook is a better place.
on_start $term
Called at the very end of initialisation of a new terminal, just before trying to map (display) the toplevel and returning to the main loop.
on_destroy $term
Called whenever something tries to destroy terminal, when the terminal is still fully functional (not for long, though).
on_reset $term
Called after the screen is ``reset'' for any reason, such as resizing or control sequences. Here is where you can react on changes to size-related variables.
on_child_start $term, $pid
Called just after the child process has been "fork"ed.
on_child_exit $term, $status
Called just after the child process has exited. $status is the status from "waitpid".
on_sel_make $term, $eventtime
Called whenever a selection has been made by the user, but before the selection text is copied, so changes to the beginning, end or type of the selection will be honored.

Returning a true value aborts selection making by urxvt, in which case you have to make a selection yourself by calling "$term->selection_grab".

on_sel_grab $term, $eventtime
Called whenever a selection has been copied, but before the selection is requested from the server. The selection text can be queried and changed by calling "$term->selection".

Returning a true value aborts selection grabbing. It will still be highlighted.

on_sel_extend $term
Called whenever the user tries to extend the selection (e.g. with a double click) and is either supposed to return false (normal operation), or should extend the selection itself and return true to suppress the built-in processing. This can happen multiple times, as long as the callback returns true, it will be called on every further click by the user and is supposed to enlarge the selection more and more, if possible.

See the selection example extension.

on_view_change $term, $offset
Called whenever the view offset changes, i.e. the user or program scrolls. Offset 0 means display the normal terminal, positive values show this many lines of scrollback.
on_scroll_back $term, $lines, $saved
Called whenever lines scroll out of the terminal area into the scrollback buffer. $lines is the number of lines scrolled out and may be larger than the scroll back buffer or the terminal.

It is called before lines are scrolled out (so rows 0 .. min ($lines - 1, $nrow - 1) represent the lines to be scrolled out). $saved is the total number of lines that will be in the scrollback buffer.

on_osc_seq $term, $op, $args, $resp
Called on every OSC sequence and can be used to suppress it or modify its behaviour. The default should be to return an empty list. A true value suppresses execution of the request completely. Make sure you don't get confused by recursive invocations when you output an OSC sequence within this callback.

"on_osc_seq_perl" should be used for new behaviour.

on_osc_seq_perl $term, $args, $resp
Called whenever the ESC ] 777 ; string ST command sequence (OSC = operating system command) is processed. Cursor position and other state information is up-to-date when this happens. For interoperability, the string should start with the extension name (sans -osc) and a semicolon, to distinguish it from commands for other extensions, and this might be enforced in the future.

For example, "overlay-osc" uses this:

   sub on_osc_seq_perl {
      my ($self, $osc, $resp) = @_;

      return unless $osc =~ s/^overlay;//;

      ... process remaining $osc string

Be careful not ever to trust (in a security sense) the data you receive, as its source can not easily be controlled (e-mail content, messages from other users on the same system etc.).

For responses, $resp contains the end-of-args separator used by the sender.

on_add_lines $term, $string
Called whenever text is about to be output, with the text as argument. You can filter/change and output the text yourself by returning a true value and calling "$term->scr_add_lines" yourself. Please note that this might be very slow, however, as your hook is called for all text being output.
on_tt_write $term, $octets
Called whenever some data is written to the tty/pty and can be used to suppress or filter tty input.
on_tt_paste $term, $octets
Called whenever text is about to be pasted, with the text as argument. You can filter/change and paste the text yourself by returning a true value and calling "$term->tt_paste" yourself. $octets is locale-encoded.
on_line_update $term, $row
Called whenever a line was updated or changed. Can be used to filter screen output (e.g. underline urls or other useless stuff). Only lines that are being shown will be filtered, and, due to performance reasons, not always immediately.

The row number is always the topmost row of the line if the line spans multiple rows.

Please note that, if you change the line, then the hook might get called later with the already-modified line (e.g. if unrelated parts change), so you cannot just toggle rendition bits, but only set them.

on_refresh_begin $term
Called just before the screen gets redrawn. Can be used for overlay or similar effects by modifying the terminal contents in refresh_begin, and restoring them in refresh_end. The built-in overlay and selection display code is run after this hook, and takes precedence.
on_refresh_end $term
Called just after the screen gets redrawn. See "on_refresh_begin".
on_user_command $term, $string
Called whenever a user-configured event is being activated (e.g. via a "perl:string" action bound to a key, see description of the keysym resource in the urxvt(1) manpage).

The event is simply the action string. This interface is assumed to change slightly in the future.

on_resize_all_windows $term, $new_width, $new_height
Called just after the new window size has been calculated, but before windows are actually being resized or hints are being set. If this hook returns TRUE, setting of the window hints is being skipped.
on_x_event $term, $event
Called on every X event received on the vt window (and possibly other windows). Should only be used as a last resort. Most event structure members are not passed.
on_root_event $term, $event
Like "on_x_event", but is called for events on the root window.
on_focus_in $term
Called whenever the window gets the keyboard focus, before rxvt-unicode does focus in processing.
on_focus_out $term
Called whenever the window loses keyboard focus, before rxvt-unicode does focus out processing.
on_configure_notify $term, $event
on_property_notify $term, $event
on_key_press $term, $event, $keysym, $octets
on_key_release $term, $event, $keysym
on_button_press $term, $event
on_button_release $term, $event
on_motion_notify $term, $event
on_map_notify $term, $event
on_unmap_notify $term, $event
Called whenever the corresponding X event is received for the terminal. If the hook returns true, then the event will be ignored by rxvt-unicode.

The event is a hash with most values as named by Xlib (see the XEvent manpage), with the additional members "row" and "col", which are the (real, not screen-based) row and column under the mouse cursor.

"on_key_press" additionally receives the string rxvt-unicode would output, if any, in locale-specific encoding.


on_client_message $term, $event
on_wm_protocols $term, $event
on_wm_delete_window $term, $event
Called when various types of ClientMessage events are received (all with format=32, WM_PROTOCOLS or WM_PROTOCOLS:WM_DELETE_WINDOW).
on_bell $term
Called on receipt of a bell character.

Variables in the urxvt Package

The rxvt-unicode library directory, where, among other things, the perl modules and scripts are stored.
$urxvt::RESCLASS, $urxvt::RESCLASS
The resource class and name rxvt-unicode uses to look up X resources.
The basename of the installed binaries, usually "urxvt".
The current terminal. This variable stores the current "urxvt::term" object, whenever a callback/hook is executing.
All code references in this array will be called as methods of the next newly created "urxvt::term" object (during the "on_init" phase). The array gets cleared before the code references that were in it are being executed, so references can push themselves onto it again if they so desire.

This complements to the perl-eval command line option, but gets executed first.

Works similar to @TERM_INIT, but contains perl package/class names, which get registered as normal extensions after calling the hooks in @TERM_INIT but before other extensions. Gets cleared just like @TERM_INIT.

Functions in the urxvt Package

urxvt::fatal $errormessage
Fatally aborts execution with the given error message. Avoid at all costs! The only time this is acceptable is when the terminal process starts up.
urxvt::warn $string
Calls "rxvt_warn" with the given string which should not include a newline. The module also overwrites the "warn" builtin with a function that calls this function.

Using this function has the advantage that its output ends up in the correct place, e.g. on stderr of the connecting urxvtc client.

Messages have a size limit of 1023 bytes currently.

@terms = urxvt::termlist
Returns all urxvt::term objects that exist in this process, regardless of whether they are started, being destroyed etc., so be careful. Only term objects that have perl extensions attached will be returned (because there is no urxvt::term objet associated with others).
$time = urxvt::NOW
Returns the ``current time'' (as per the event loop).
urxvt::ShiftMask, LockMask, ControlMask, Mod1Mask, Mod2Mask, Mod3Mask, Mod4Mask, Mod5Mask, Button1Mask, Button2Mask, Button3Mask, Button4Mask, Button5Mask, AnyModifier
urxvt::NoEventMask, KeyPressMask, KeyReleaseMask, ButtonPressMask, ButtonReleaseMask, EnterWindowMask, LeaveWindowMask, PointerMotionMask, PointerMotionHintMask, Button1MotionMask, Button2MotionMask, Button3MotionMask, Button4MotionMask, Button5MotionMask, ButtonMotionMask, KeymapStateMask, ExposureMask, VisibilityChangeMask, StructureNotifyMask, ResizeRedirectMask, SubstructureNotifyMask, SubstructureRedirectMask, FocusChangeMask, PropertyChangeMask, ColormapChangeMask, OwnerGrabButtonMask
urxvt::KeyPress, KeyRelease, ButtonPress, ButtonRelease, MotionNotify, EnterNotify, LeaveNotify, FocusIn, FocusOut, KeymapNotify, Expose, GraphicsExpose, NoExpose, VisibilityNotify, CreateNotify, DestroyNotify, UnmapNotify, MapNotify, MapRequest, ReparentNotify, ConfigureNotify, ConfigureRequest, GravityNotify, ResizeRequest, CirculateNotify, CirculateRequest, PropertyNotify, SelectionClear, SelectionRequest, SelectionNotify, ColormapNotify, ClientMessage, MappingNotify
Various constants for use in X calls and event processing.


Rendition bitsets contain information about colour, font, font styles and similar information for each screen cell.

The following ``macros'' deal with changes in rendition sets. You should never just create a bitset, you should always modify an existing one, as they contain important information required for correct operation of rxvt-unicode.

$rend = urxvt::DEFAULT_RSTYLE
Returns the default rendition, as used when the terminal is starting up or being reset. Useful as a base to start when creating renditions.
$rend = urxvt::OVERLAY_RSTYLE
Return the rendition mask used for overlays by default.
$rendbit = urxvt::RS_Bold, RS_Italic, RS_Blink, RS_RVid, RS_Uline
Return the bit that enabled bold, italic, blink, reverse-video and underline, respectively. To enable such a style, just logically OR it into the bitset.
$foreground = urxvt::GET_BASEFG $rend
$background = urxvt::GET_BASEBG $rend
Return the foreground/background colour index, respectively.
$rend = urxvt::SET_FGCOLOR $rend, $new_colour
$rend = urxvt::SET_BGCOLOR $rend, $new_colour
$rend = urxvt::SET_COLOR $rend, $new_fg, $new_bg
Replace the foreground/background colour in the rendition mask with the specified one.
$value = urxvt::GET_CUSTOM $rend
Return the ``custom'' value: Every rendition has 5 bits for use by extensions. They can be set and changed as you like and are initially zero.
$rend = urxvt::SET_CUSTOM $rend, $new_value
Change the custom value.

The urxvt::anyevent Class

The sole purpose of this class is to deliver an interface to the "AnyEvent" module - any module using it will work inside urxvt without further programming. The only exception is that you cannot wait on condition variables, but non-blocking condvar use is ok. What this means is that you cannot use blocking APIs, but the non-blocking variant should work.  

The urxvt::term Class

$term = new urxvt::term $envhashref, $rxvtname, [arg...]
Creates a new terminal, very similar as if you had started it with system "$rxvtname, arg...". $envhashref must be a reference to a %ENV-like hash which defines the environment of the new terminal.

Croaks (and probably outputs an error message) if the new instance couldn't be created. Returns "undef" if the new instance didn't initialise perl, and the terminal object otherwise. The "init" and "start" hooks will be called before this call returns, and are free to refer to global data (which is race free).

Destroy the terminal object (close the window, free resources etc.). Please note that urxvt will not exit as long as any event watchers (timers, io watchers) are still active.
$term->exec_async ($cmd[, @args])
Works like the combination of the "fork"/"exec" builtins, which executes (``starts'') programs in the background. This function takes care of setting the user environment before exec'ing the command (e.g. "PATH") and should be preferred over explicit calls to "exec" or "system".

Returns the pid of the subprocess or "undef" on error.

$isset = $term->option ($optval[, $set])
Returns true if the option specified by $optval is enabled, and optionally change it. All option values are stored by name in the hash %urxvt::OPTION. Options not enabled in this binary are not in the hash.

Here is a likely non-exhaustive list of option names, please see the source file /src/optinc.h to see the actual list:

 borderLess console cursorBlink cursorUnderline hold iconic insecure
 intensityStyles jumpScroll loginShell mapAlert meta8 mouseWheelScrollPage
 override-redirect pastableTabs pointerBlank reverseVideo scrollBar
 scrollBar_floating scrollBar_right scrollTtyKeypress scrollTtyOutput
 scrollWithBuffer secondaryScreen secondaryScroll skipBuiltinGlyphs
 transparent tripleclickwords utmpInhibit visualBell

$value = $term->resource ($name[, $newval])
Returns the current resource value associated with a given name and optionally sets a new value. Setting values is most useful in the "init" hook. Unset resources are returned and accepted as "undef".

The new value must be properly encoded to a suitable character encoding before passing it to this method. Similarly, the returned value may need to be converted from the used encoding to text.

Resource names are as defined in src/rsinc.h. Colours can be specified as resource names of the form "color+<index>", e.g. "color+5". (will likely change).

Please note that resource strings will currently only be freed when the terminal is destroyed, so changing options frequently will eat memory.

Here is a likely non-exhaustive list of resource names, not all of which are supported in every build, please see the source file /src/rsinc.h to see the actual list:

  answerbackstring backgroundPixmap backspace_key boldFont boldItalicFont
  borderLess chdir color cursorBlink cursorUnderline cutchars delete_key
  display_name embed ext_bwidth fade font geometry hold iconName
  imFont imLocale inputMethod insecure int_bwidth intensityStyles
  italicFont jumpScroll lineSpace letterSpace loginShell mapAlert meta8
  modifier mouseWheelScrollPage name override_redirect pastableTabs path
  perl_eval perl_ext_1 perl_ext_2 perl_lib pointerBlank pointerBlankDelay
  preeditType print_pipe pty_fd reverseVideo saveLines scrollBar
  scrollBar_align scrollBar_floating scrollBar_right scrollBar_thickness
  scrollTtyKeypress scrollTtyOutput scrollWithBuffer scrollstyle
  secondaryScreen secondaryScroll shade term_name title
  transient_for transparent transparent_all tripleclickwords utmpInhibit

$value = $term->x_resource ($pattern)
Returns the X-Resource for the given pattern, excluding the program or class name, i.e. "$term->x_resource ("boldFont")" should return the same value as used by this instance of rxvt-unicode. Returns "undef" if no resource with that pattern exists.

This method should only be called during the "on_start" hook, as there is only one resource database per display, and later invocations might return the wrong resources.

$success = $term->parse_keysym ($keysym_spec, $command_string)
Adds a keymap translation exactly as specified via a resource. See the "keysym" resource in the urxvt(1) manpage.
$rend = $term->rstyle ([$new_rstyle])
Return and optionally change the current rendition. Text that is output by the terminal application will use this style.
($row, $col) = $term->screen_cur ([$row, $col])
Return the current coordinates of the text cursor position and optionally set it (which is usually bad as applications don't expect that).
($row, $col) = $term->selection_mark ([$row, $col])
($row, $col) = $term->selection_beg ([$row, $col])
($row, $col) = $term->selection_end ([$row, $col])
Return the current values of the selection mark, begin or end positions.

When arguments are given, then the selection coordinates are set to $row and $col, and the selection screen is set to the current screen.

$screen = $term->selection_screen ([$screen])
Returns the current selection screen, and then optionally sets it.
$term->selection_make ($eventtime[, $rectangular])
Tries to make a selection as set by "selection_beg" and "selection_end". If $rectangular is true (default: false), a rectangular selection will be made. This is the preferred function to make a selection.
$success = $term->selection_grab ($eventtime[, $clipboard])
Try to acquire ownership of the primary (clipboard if $clipboard is true) selection from the server. The corresponding text can be set with the next method. No visual feedback will be given. This function is mostly useful from within "on_sel_grab" hooks.
$oldtext = $term->selection ([$newtext, $clipboard])
Return the current selection (clipboard if $clipboard is true) text and optionally replace it by $newtext.
$term->selection_clear ([$clipboard])
Revoke ownership of the primary (clipboard if $clipboard is true) selection.
$term->overlay_simple ($x, $y, $text)
Create a simple multi-line overlay box. See the next method for details.
$term->overlay ($x, $y, $width, $height[, $rstyle[, $border]])
Create a new (empty) overlay at the given position with the given width/height. $rstyle defines the initial rendition style (default: "OVERLAY_RSTYLE").

If $border is 2 (default), then a decorative border will be put around the box.

If either $x or $y is negative, then this is counted from the right/bottom side, respectively.

This method returns an urxvt::overlay object. The overlay will be visible as long as the perl object is referenced.

The methods currently supported on "urxvt::overlay" objects are:

$overlay->set ($x, $y, $text[, $rend])
Similar to "$term->ROW_t" and "$term->ROW_r" in that it puts text in rxvt-unicode's special encoding and an array of rendition values at a specific position inside the overlay.

If $rend is missing, then the rendition will not be changed.

If visible, hide the overlay, but do not destroy it.
If hidden, display the overlay again.
$popup = $term->popup ($event)
Creates a new "urxvt::popup" object that implements a popup menu. The $event must be the event causing the menu to pop up (a button event, currently).
$cellwidth = $term->strwidth ($string)
Returns the number of screen-cells this string would need. Correctly accounts for wide and combining characters.
$octets = $term->locale_encode ($string)
Convert the given text string into the corresponding locale encoding.
$string = $term->locale_decode ($octets)
Convert the given locale-encoded octets into a perl string.
$term->scr_xor_span ($beg_row, $beg_col, $end_row, $end_col[, $rstyle])
XORs the rendition values in the given span with the provided value (default: "RS_RVid"), which MUST NOT contain font styles. Useful in refresh hooks to provide effects similar to the selection.
$term->scr_xor_rect ($beg_row, $beg_col, $end_row, $end_col[, $rstyle1[, $rstyle2]])
Similar to "scr_xor_span", but xors a rectangle instead. Trailing whitespace will additionally be xored with the $rstyle2, which defaults to "RS_RVid | RS_Uline", which removes reverse video again and underlines it instead. Both styles MUST NOT contain font styles.
Ring the bell!
$term->scr_add_lines ($string)
Write the given text string to the screen, as if output by the application running inside the terminal. It may not contain command sequences (escape codes), but is free to use line feeds, carriage returns and tabs. The string is a normal text string, not in locale-dependent encoding.

Normally its not a good idea to use this function, as programs might be confused by changes in cursor position or scrolling. Its useful inside a "on_add_lines" hook, though.

$term->scr_change_screen ($screen)
Switch to given screen - 0 primary, 1 secondary.
$term->cmd_parse ($octets)
Similar to "scr_add_lines", but the argument must be in the locale-specific encoding of the terminal and can contain command sequences (escape codes) that will be interpreted.
$term->tt_write ($octets)
Write the octets given in $octets to the tty (i.e. as program input). To pass characters instead of octets, you should convert your strings first to the locale-specific encoding using "$term->locale_encode".
$term->tt_paste ($octets)
Write the octets given in $octets to the tty as a paste, converting NL to CR and bracketing the data with control sequences if bracketed paste mode is set.
$old_events = $term->pty_ev_events ([$new_events])
Replaces the event mask of the pty watcher by the given event mask. Can be used to suppress input and output handling to the pty/tty. See the description of "urxvt::timer->events". Make sure to always restore the previous value.
$fd = $term->pty_fd
Returns the master file descriptor for the pty in use, or "-1" if no pty is used.
$windowid = $term->parent
Return the window id of the toplevel window.
$windowid = $term->vt
Return the window id of the terminal window.
$term->vt_emask_add ($x_event_mask)
Adds the specified events to the vt event mask. Useful e.g. when you want to receive pointer events all the times:

   $term->vt_emask_add (urxvt::PointerMotionMask);

$term->key_press ($state, $keycode[, $time])
$term->key_release ($state, $keycode[, $time])
Deliver various fake events to to terminal.
$window_width = $term->width
$window_height = $term->height
$font_width = $term->fwidth
$font_height = $term->fheight
$font_ascent = $term->fbase
$terminal_rows = $term->nrow
$terminal_columns = $term->ncol
$has_focus = $term->focus
$is_mapped = $term->mapped
$max_scrollback = $term->saveLines
$nrow_plus_saveLines = $term->total_rows
$topmost_scrollback_row = $term->top_row
Return various integers describing terminal characteristics.
$x_display = $term->display_id
Return the DISPLAY used by rxvt-unicode.
$lc_ctype = $term->locale
Returns the LC_CTYPE category string used by this rxvt-unicode.
$env = $term->env
Returns a copy of the environment in effect for the terminal as a hashref similar to "\%ENV".
@envv = $term->envv
Returns the environment as array of strings of the form "VAR=VALUE".
@argv = $term->argv
Return the argument vector as this terminal, similar to @ARGV, but includes the program name as first element.
$modifiermask = $term->ModLevel3Mask
$modifiermask = $term->ModMetaMask
$modifiermask = $term->ModNumLockMask
Return the modifier masks corresponding to the ``ISO Level 3 Shift'' (often AltGr), the meta key (often Alt) and the num lock key, if applicable.
$screen = $term->current_screen
Returns the currently displayed screen (0 primary, 1 secondary).
$cursor_is_hidden = $term->hidden_cursor
Returns whether the cursor is currently hidden or not.
$view_start = $term->view_start ([$newvalue])
Returns the row number of the topmost displayed line. Maximum value is 0, which displays the normal terminal contents. Lower values scroll this many lines into the scrollback buffer.
Requests a screen refresh. At the next opportunity, rxvt-unicode will compare the on-screen display with its stored representation. If they differ, it redraws the differences.

Used after changing terminal contents to display them.

$text = $term->ROW_t ($row_number[, $new_text[, $start_col]])
Returns the text of the entire row with number $row_number. Row "$term->top_row" is the topmost terminal line, row "$term->nrow-1" is the bottommost terminal line. Nothing will be returned if a nonexistent line is requested.

If $new_text is specified, it will replace characters in the current line, starting at column $start_col (default 0), which is useful to replace only parts of a line. The font index in the rendition will automatically be updated.

$text is in a special encoding: tabs and wide characters that use more than one cell when displayed are padded with $urxvt::NOCHAR (chr 65535) characters. Characters with combining characters and other characters that do not fit into the normal text encoding will be replaced with characters in the private use area.

You have to obey this encoding when changing text. The advantage is that "substr" and similar functions work on screen cells and not on characters.

The methods "$term->special_encode" and "$term->special_decode" can be used to convert normal strings into this encoding and vice versa.

$rend = $term->ROW_r ($row_number[, $new_rend[, $start_col]])
Like "$term->ROW_t", but returns an arrayref with rendition bitsets. Rendition bitsets contain information about colour, font, font styles and similar information. See also "$term->ROW_t".

When setting rendition, the font mask will be ignored.

See the section on RENDITION, above.

$length = $term->ROW_l ($row_number[, $new_length])
Returns the number of screen cells that are in use (``the line length''). Unlike the urxvt core, this returns "$term->ncol" if the line is joined with the following one.
$bool = $term->is_longer ($row_number)
Returns true if the row is part of a multiple-row logical ``line'' (i.e. joined with the following row), which means all characters are in use and it is continued on the next row (and possibly a continuation of the previous row(s)).
$line = $term->line ($row_number)
Create and return a new "urxvt::line" object that stores information about the logical line that row $row_number is part of. It supports the following methods:
$text = $line->t ([$new_text])
Returns or replaces the full text of the line, similar to "ROW_t"
$rend = $line->r ([$new_rend])
Returns or replaces the full rendition array of the line, similar to "ROW_r"
$length = $line->l
Returns the length of the line in cells, similar to "ROW_l".
$rownum = $line->beg
$rownum = $line->end
Return the row number of the first/last row of the line, respectively.
$offset = $line->offset_of ($row, $col)
Returns the character offset of the given row|col pair within the logical line. Works for rows outside the line, too, and returns corresponding offsets outside the string.
($row, $col) = $line->coord_of ($offset)
Translates a string offset into terminal coordinates again.
$text = $term->special_encode $string
Converts a perl string into the special encoding used by rxvt-unicode, where one character corresponds to one screen cell. See "$term->ROW_t" for details.
$string = $term->special_decode $text
Converts rxvt-unicodes text representation into a perl string. See "$term->ROW_t" for details.
$success = $term->grab_button ($button, $modifiermask[, $window = $term->vt])
$term->ungrab_button ($button, $modifiermask[, $window = $term->vt])
Register/unregister a synchronous button grab. See the XGrabButton manpage.
$success = $term->grab ($eventtime[, $sync])
Calls XGrabPointer and XGrabKeyboard in asynchronous (default) or synchronous ($sync is true). Also remembers the grab timestamp.
Calls XAllowEvents with AsyncBoth for the most recent grab.
Calls XAllowEvents with SyncBoth for the most recent grab.
Calls XAllowEvents with both ReplayPointer and ReplayKeyboard for the most recent grab.
Calls XUngrabPointer and XUngrabKeyboard for the most recent grab. Is called automatically on evaluation errors, as it is better to lose the grab in the error case as the session.
$atom = $term->XInternAtom ($atom_name[, $only_if_exists])
$atom_name = $term->XGetAtomName ($atom)
@atoms = $term->XListProperties ($window)
($type,$format,$octets) = $term->XGetWindowProperty ($window, $property)
$term->XChangeProperty ($window, $property, $type, $format, $octets)
$term->XDeleteProperty ($window, $property)
$window = $term->DefaultRootWindow
$term->XReparentWindow ($window, $parent, [$x, $y])
$term->XMapWindow ($window)
$term->XUnmapWindow ($window)
$term->XMoveResizeWindow ($window, $x, $y, $width, $height)
($x, $y, $child_window) = $term->XTranslateCoordinates ($src, $dst, $x, $y)
$term->XChangeInput ($window, $add_events[, $del_events])
Various X or X-related functions. The $term object only serves as the source of the display, otherwise those functions map more-or-less directly onto the X functions of the same name.

The urxvt::popup Class

$popup->add_title ($title)
Adds a non-clickable title to the popup.
$popup->add_separator ([$sepchr])
Creates a separator, optionally using the character given as $sepchr.
$popup->add_button ($text, $cb)
Adds a clickable button to the popup. $cb is called whenever it is selected.
$popup->add_toggle ($text, $initial_value, $cb)
Adds a toggle/checkbox item to the popup. The callback gets called whenever it gets toggled, with a boolean indicating its new value as its first argument.
Displays the popup (which is initially hidden).

The urxvt::timer Class

This class implements timer watchers/events. Time is represented as a fractional number of seconds since the epoch. Example:

   $term->{overlay} = $term->overlay (-1, 0, 8, 1, urxvt::OVERLAY_RSTYLE, 0);
   $term->{timer} = urxvt::timer
                    ->interval (1)
                    ->cb (sub {
                       $term->{overlay}->set (0, 0,
                          sprintf "%2d:%02d:%02d", (localtime urxvt::NOW)[2,1,0]);

$timer = new urxvt::timer
Create a new timer object in started state. It is scheduled to fire immediately.
$timer = $timer->cb (sub { my ($timer) = @_; ... })
Set the callback to be called when the timer triggers.
$timer = $timer->set ($tstamp[, $interval])
Set the time the event is generated to $tstamp (and optionally specifies a new $interval).
$timer = $timer->interval ($interval)
By default (and when $interval is 0), the timer will automatically stop after it has fired once. If $interval is non-zero, then the timer is automatically rescheduled at the given intervals.
$timer = $timer->start
Start the timer.
$timer = $timer->start ($tstamp[, $interval])
Set the event trigger time to $tstamp and start the timer. Optionally also replaces the interval.
$timer = $timer->after ($delay[, $interval])
Like "start", but sets the expiry timer to c<urxvt::NOW + $delay>.
$timer = $timer->stop
Stop the timer.

The urxvt::iow Class

This class implements io watchers/events. Example:

  $term->{socket} = ...
  $term->{iow} = urxvt::iow
                 ->fd (fileno $term->{socket})
                 ->events (urxvt::EV_READ)
                 ->cb (sub {
                   my ($iow, $revents) = @_;
                   # $revents must be 1 here, no need to check
                   sysread $term->{socket}, my $buf, 8192
                      or end-of-file;

$iow = new urxvt::iow
Create a new io watcher object in stopped state.
$iow = $iow->cb (sub { my ($iow, $reventmask) = @_; ... })
Set the callback to be called when io events are triggered. $reventmask is a bitset as described in the "events" method.
$iow = $iow->fd ($fd)
Set the file descriptor (not handle) to watch.
$iow = $iow->events ($eventmask)
Set the event mask to watch. The only allowed values are "urxvt::EV_READ" and "urxvt::EV_WRITE", which might be ORed together, or "urxvt::EV_NONE".
$iow = $iow->start
Start watching for requested events on the given handle.
$iow = $iow->stop
Stop watching for events on the given file handle.

The urxvt::iw Class

This class implements idle watchers, that get called automatically when the process is idle. They should return as fast as possible, after doing some useful work.
$iw = new urxvt::iw
Create a new idle watcher object in stopped state.
$iw = $iw->cb (sub { my ($iw) = @_; ... })
Set the callback to be called when the watcher triggers.
$timer = $timer->start
Start the watcher.
$timer = $timer->stop
Stop the watcher.

The urxvt::pw Class

This class implements process watchers. They create an event whenever a process exits, after which they stop automatically.

   my $pid = fork;
   $term->{pw} = urxvt::pw
                    ->start ($pid)
                    ->cb (sub {
                       my ($pw, $exit_status) = @_;

$pw = new urxvt::pw
Create a new process watcher in stopped state.
$pw = $pw->cb (sub { my ($pw, $exit_status) = @_; ... })
Set the callback to be called when the timer triggers.
$pw = $timer->start ($pid)
Tells the watcher to start watching for process $pid.
$pw = $pw->stop
Stop the watcher.




This variable controls the verbosity level of the perl extension. Higher numbers indicate more verbose output.
== 0 - fatal messages
>= 3 - script loading and management
>=10 - all called hooks
>=11 - hook return values


 Marc Lehmann <>



General API Considerations
Extension Objects
Variables in the urxvt Package
Functions in the urxvt Package
The urxvt::anyevent Class
The urxvt::term Class
The urxvt::popup Class
The urxvt::timer Class
The urxvt::iow Class
The urxvt::iw Class
The urxvt::pw Class

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 21:57:59 GMT, April 16, 2011