double logb(double x);
float logbf(float x);
long double logbl(long double x);
These functions shall compute the exponent of x, which is the integral part of log_r |x|, as a signed floating-point value, for non-zero x, where r is the radix of the machine's floating-point arithmetic, which is the value of FLT_RADIX defined in the <float.h> header.
If x is subnormal it is treated as though it were normalized; thus for finite positive x:
1 <= x * FLT_RADIX**-logb(x) < FLT_RADIX
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the exponent of x.
If x is ±0, a pole error shall occur and logb(), logbf(), and logbl() shall return -HUGE_VAL, -HUGE_VALF, and -HUGE_VALL, respectively.
If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is ±Inf, +Inf shall be returned.
These functions shall fail if:
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.
feclearexcept() , fetestexcept() , ilogb() , scalb() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <float.h>, <math.h>