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SOCKET

SOCKET

Section: POSIX Programmer's Manual (P) Updated: 2003
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NAME

socket - create an endpoint for communication  

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/socket.h>

int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol);
 

DESCRIPTION

The socket() function shall create an unbound socket in a communications domain, and return a file descriptor that can be used in later function calls that operate on sockets.

The socket() function takes the following arguments:

domain
Specifies the communications domain in which a socket is to be created.
type
Specifies the type of socket to be created.
protocol
Specifies a particular protocol to be used with the socket. Specifying a protocol of 0 causes socket() to use an unspecified default protocol appropriate for the requested socket type.

The domain argument specifies the address family used in the communications domain. The address families supported by the system are implementation-defined.

Symbolic constants that can be used for the domain argument are defined in the <sys/socket.h> header.

The type argument specifies the socket type, which determines the semantics of communication over the socket. The following socket types are defined; implementations may specify additional socket types:

SOCK_STREAM
Provides sequenced, reliable, bidirectional, connection-mode byte streams, and may provide a transmission mechanism for out-of-band data.
SOCK_DGRAM
Provides datagrams, which are connectionless-mode, unreliable messages of fixed maximum length.
SOCK_SEQPACKET
Provides sequenced, reliable, bidirectional, connection-mode transmission paths for records. A record can be sent using one or more output operations and received using one or more input operations, but a single operation never transfers part of more than one record. Record boundaries are visible to the receiver via the MSG_EOR flag.

If the protocol argument is non-zero, it shall specify a protocol that is supported by the address family. If the protocol argument is zero, the default protocol for this address family and type shall be used. The protocols supported by the system are implementation-defined.

The process may need to have appropriate privileges to use the socket() function or to create some sockets.  

RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, socket() shall return a non-negative integer, the socket file descriptor. Otherwise, a value of -1 shall be returned and errno set to indicate the error.  

ERRORS

The socket() function shall fail if:

EAFNOSUPPORT

The implementation does not support the specified address family.

EMFILE
No more file descriptors are available for this process.
ENFILE
No more file descriptors are available for the system.
EPROTONOSUPPORT

The protocol is not supported by the address family, or the protocol is not supported by the implementation.

EPROTOTYPE
The socket type is not supported by the protocol.

The socket() function may fail if:

EACCES
The process does not have appropriate privileges.
ENOBUFS
Insufficient resources were available in the system to perform the operation.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory was available to fulfill the request.

The following sections are informative.  

EXAMPLES

None.  

APPLICATION USAGE

The documentation for specific address families specifies which protocols each address family supports. The documentation for specific protocols specifies which socket types each protocol supports.

The application can determine whether an address family is supported by trying to create a socket with domain set to the protocol in question.  

RATIONALE

None.  

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.  

SEE ALSO

accept() , bind() , connect() , getsockname() , getsockopt() , listen() , recv() , recvfrom() , recvmsg() , send() , sendmsg() , setsockopt() , shutdown() , socketpair() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <netinet/in.h>, <sys/socket.h>  

COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
RETURN VALUE
ERRORS
EXAMPLES
APPLICATION USAGE
RATIONALE
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
SEE ALSO
COPYRIGHT

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Time: 21:55:37 GMT, April 16, 2011