twfiles - overview of files used by Tripwire and file backup process
.SS Configuration File
The configuration file stores system-specific information, such as the
location of Tripwire data files. The configuration settings are
generated during the installation process, but can be changed by the system administrator at any time. See the
twconfig(4) man page for a more complete discussion.
.SS Policy File
The policy file consists of a series of rules specifying the system
objects that Tripwire should monitor, and the data for each
object that should be collected and stored in the database file.
Should unexpected changes occur, the policy file can describe the
person to be notified and the severity of the violation. See the
policyguide.txt file in the policy directory and the
twpolicy(4) man page for a more complete discussion.
.SS Database File
The database file serves as the
baseline for integrity checking. After installation, Tripwire
creates the initial database file, a "snapshot" of the filesystem in a
known secure state. Later, when an integrity check is run,
Tripwire compares each system object described in the policy file
against its corresponding entry in the database. A report is created,
and if an object has changed outside of constraints defined in the
policy file, a violation is reported. See the tripwire(8) and
twprint(8) man pages for more information on creating and
maintaining database files.
.SS Report Files
Once the above three files have been created, Tripwire can run an
integrity check and search for any differences between the current
system and the data stored in the "baseline" Tripwire database.
This information is archived into report files, a collection of rule
violations discovered during an integrity check.
With the appropriate settings, a report can also be emailed to one
or more recipients. See the
tripwire(8) and twprint(8) man pages for information on
creating and printing report files.
.SS Key Files
defaults: /etc/tripwire/site.key and /etc/tripwire/$(HOSTNAME)-local.key
It is critical that Tripwire files be protected from unauthorized
attacker who is able to modify these files can subvert Tripwire
operation. For this reason, all of the above files are
signed using public key cryptography to prevent unauthorized
modification. Two separate sets of keys protect critical Tripwire data files. One or both of these key sets is necessary for performing
almost every Tripwire task.
The site key is used to protect files that could be used across several
systems. This includes the policy and configuration files. The local
key is used to protect files specific to the local machine, such as the
Tripwire database. The local key may also be used for signing
integrity check reports. See the twadmin(8) man page for more
information on keys.
To prevent the accidental deletion of important data, Tripwire
automatically creates backup files whenever any Tripwire file is
overwritten. The existing file will be renamed with a .bak
extension, and the new version of the file will take its place. Only
one backup copy for each filename can exist at any time. If a backup
copy of a file already exists, the older backup file will be deleted
and replaced with the newer one.
File backup is an integral part of Tripwire, and cannot be
removed or changed.
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