implements an Internet Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) server as defined in
RFC951, RFC1532, and RFC1533. This server also provides some extension
to support the static part of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
as specified in RFC1533. DHCP is used by Windows NT and 95.
implements a simple BOOTP gateway which can be used to forward
requests and responses between clients on one subnet and a
BOOTP server (i.e.
on another subnet. While either
will forward BOOTREPLY packets, only
will forward BOOTREQUEST packets.
One host on each network segment is normally configured to run either
by including one of the following lines in the file
This mode of operation is referred to as "inetd mode" and causes
to be started only when a boot request arrives. If it does not
receive another packet within fifteen minutes of the last one
it received, it will exit to conserve system resources. The
option controls this timeout (see OPTIONS below).
It is also possible to run
in "standalone mode" (without
by simply invoking it from a shell like any other regular command.
Standalone mode is particularly useful when
is used with a large configuration database, where the start up
delay might otherwise prevent timely response to client requests.
(Automatic start up in standalone mode can be done by invoking
Standalone mode is less useful for
has very little start up delay because
it does not read a configuration file.
Either program automatically detects whether it was invoked from inetd
or from a shell and automatically selects the appropriate mode.
option may be used to force standalone or inetd mode respectively
value (in minutes) that a
process will wait for a BOOTP packet before exiting.
If no packets are received for
seconds, then the program will exit.
A timeout value of zero means "run forever".
In standalone mode, this option is forced to zero.
variable that controls the amount of debugging messages generated.
For example, -d4 or -d 4 will set the debugging level to 4.
For compatibility with older versions of
omitting the numeric parameter (i.e. just -d) will
simply increment the debug level by one.
Sets the current directory used by
while checking the existence and size of client boot files. This is
useful when client boot files are specified as relative pathnames, and
needs to use the same current directory as the TFTP server
This option is not recognized by
Force inetd mode. This option is obsolete, but remains for
compatibility with older versions of
Force standalone mode. This option is obsolete, but remains for
compatibility with older versions of
Print version and exit.
Specifies the name of the configuration file from which
loads its database of known clients and client options
only). Default is
Specifies the name of the file that
will dump its internal database into when it receives a
only). This option is only recognized if
was compiled with the -DDEBUG flag.
Specifies the name of a BOOTP server to which
will forward all BOOTREQUEST packets it receives
operate similarly in that both listen for any packets sent to the
port, and both simply forward any BOOTREPLY packets.
They differ in their handling of BOOTREQUEST packets.
is started, it determines the address of a BOOTP server
whose name is provided as a command line parameter. When
receives a BOOTREQUEST packet, it sets the "gateway address"
and "hop count" fields in the packet and forwards the packet
to the BOOTP server at the address determined earlier.
Requests are forwarded only if they indicate that
the client has been waiting for at least three seconds.
is started it reads a configuration file, (normally
that initializes the internal database of known clients and client
options. This internal database is reloaded
from the configuration file when
receives a hangup signal (SIGHUP) or when it discovers that the
configuration file has changed. Note that any changes to the configuration
file should be atomic to avoid race conditions.
receives a BOOTREQUEST packet, it
looks for a database entry matching the client request.
If the client is known,
composes a BOOTREPLY packet using the database entry found above,
and sends the reply to the client (possibly using a gateway).
If the client is unknown, the request is discarded
(with a notice if debug > 0).
is compiled with the -DDEBUG option, receipt of a
signal causes it to dump its internal database to the file
or the dumpfile specified as a command line parameter.
During initialization, both programs
determine the UDP port numbers to be used by calling
(which normally uses
Two service names (and port numbers) are used:
bootps - BOOTP Server listening port
bootpc - BOOTP Client destination port
If the port numbers cannot
be determined using
then the values default to boopts=67 and bootpc=68.
Database file read by
Debugging dump file created by
Internet service numbers.
Current directory typically used by the TFTP server and
Individual host entries must not exceed 1024 characters.
This distribution is currently maintained by
Walter L. Wimer <email@example.com>.
The original BOOTP server was created by
Bill Croft at Stanford University in January 1986.
The current version of
is primarily the work of David Kovar,
Drew D. Perkins, and Walter L. Wimer,
at Carnegie Mellon University.
Enhancements and bug-fixes have been contributed by: