hping3 is a network tool able to send custom TCP/IP packets and to
display target replies like ping program does with ICMP replies. hping3
handle fragmentation, arbitrary packets body and size and can be used in
order to transfer files encapsulated under supported protocols. Using
hping3 you are able to perform at least the following stuff:
- Test firewall rules
- Advanced port scanning
- Test net performance using different protocols,
packet size, TOS (type of service) and fragmentation.
- Path MTU discovery
- Transferring files between even really fascist firewall
- Traceroute-like under different protocols.
- Firewalk-like usage.
- Remote OS fingerprinting.
- TCP/IP stack auditing.
- A lot of others.
It's also a good didactic tool to learn TCP/IP.
hping3 is developed and maintained by firstname.lastname@example.org and is
licensed under GPL version 2. Development is open so you can send
me patches, suggestion and affronts without inhibitions.
Show an help screen on standard output, so you can pipe to less.
Show version information and API used to access to data link layer,
linux sock packet
-c --count count
Stop after sending (and receiving)
response packets. After last packet was send hping3 wait COUNTREACHED_TIMEOUT
seconds target host replies. You are able to tune COUNTREACHED_TIMEOUT editing
the specified number of seconds or micro seconds between sending each packet.
--interval X set
to X seconds, --interval uX set
to X micro seconds.
The default is to wait
one second between each packet. Using hping3 to transfer files tune this
option is really important in order to increase transfer rate. Even using
hping3 to perform idle/spoofing scanning you should tune this option, see
for more information.
Alias for -i u10000. Hping will send 10 packets for second.
Alias for -i u1. Faster then --fast ;) (but not as fast as your computer can send packets due to the signal-driven design).
Sent packets as fast as possible, without taking care to show incoming replies.
This is ways faster than to specify the -i u0 option.
Numeric output only, No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
Quiet output. Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at
startup time and when finished.
-I --interface interface name
By default on linux and BSD systems hping3 uses default routing interface.
In other systems or when there is no default route
hping3 uses the first non-loopback interface.
However you are able to force hping3 to use the interface you need using
this option. Note: you don't need to specify the whole name, for
example -I et will match eth0 ethernet0 myet1 et cetera. If no interfaces
match hping3 will try to use lo.
Enable verbose output. TCP replies will be shown as follows:
Enable debug mode, it's useful when you experience some problem with
hping3. When debug mode is enabled you will get more information about
interface detection, data link layer access, interface settings, optionsparsing, fragmentation, HCMP protocol
and other stuff.
Bind CTRL+Z to
time to live (TTL)
so you will able to increment/decrement ttl of outgoing packets pressing
CTRL+Z once or twice.
Unbind CTRL+Z so you will able to stop hping3.
Beep for every matching received packet (but not for ICMP errors).
Default protocol is TCP, by default hping3 will send tcp headers to target
host's port 0 with a winsize of 64 without any tcp flag on. Often this
is the best way to do an 'hide ping', useful when target is behind
a firewall that drop ICMP. Moreover a tcp null-flag to port 0 has a good
probability of not being logged.
RAW IP mode, in this mode hping3 will send IP header with data
appended with --signature and/or --file, see also --ipproto that
allows you to set the ip protocol field.
ICMP mode, by default hping3 will send ICMP echo-request, you can set
other ICMP type/code using
UDP mode, by default hping3 will send udp to target host's port 0.
UDP header tunable options are the following:
--baseport, --destport, --keep.
Scan mode, the option expects an argument that describes groups of
ports to scan. port groups are comma separated: a number describes
just a single port, so 1,2,3 means port 1, 2 and 3. ranges are specified
using a start-end notation, like 1-1000, that tell hping to scan ports between 1 and 1000 (included). the special word
is an alias for 0-65535, while the special word
includes all the ports listed in /etc/services.
Groups can be combined, so the following command line will
scan ports between 1 and 1000 AND port 8888 AND ports listed in /etc/services:
hping --scan 1-1000,8888,known -S target.host.com
Groups can be negated (subtracted) using a ! character as prefix,
so the following command line will scan all the ports NOT listed
in /etc/services in the range 1-1024:
hping --scan '1-1024,!known' -S target.host.com
Keep in mind that while hping seems much more like a port scanner in
this mode, most of the hping switches are still honored, so for example to
perform a SYN scan you need to specify the
option, you can change the TCP windows size, TTL, control the
IP fragmentation as usually, and so on. The only real difference is that
the standard hping behaviors are encapsulated into a scanning
The scan mode uses a two-processes design, with shared memory for synchronization. The scanning algorithm is still not optimal, but already quite fast.
unlike most scanners, hping shows some interesting info about received
packets, the IP ID, TCP win, TTL, and so on, don't forget to look
at this additional information when you perform a scan! Sometimes they
shows interesting details.
-9 --listen signature
HPING3 listen mode, using this option hping3 waits for packet that contain
and dump from
end to packet's end. For example if hping3 --listen TEST reads a packet
it will display
IP RELATED OPTIONS
-a --spoof hostname
Use this option in order to set a fake IP source address, this option
ensures that target will not gain your real address. However replies
will be sent to spoofed address, so you will can't see them. In order
to see how it's possible to perform spoofed/idle scanning see the
This option enables the
random source mode.
hping will send packets with random source address. It is interesting
to use this option to stress firewall state tables, and other
per-ip basis dynamic tables inside the TCP/IP stacks and firewall
This option enables the
random destination mode.
hping will send the packets to random addresses obtained following
the rule you specify as the target host. You need to specify
a numerical IP address as target host like
All the occurrences of
will be replaced with a random number in the range 0-255. So to obtain
Internet IP addresses in the whole IPv4 space use something like
hping x.x.x.x --rand-dest.
If you are not sure about what kind of addresses your rule is generating
try to use the
switch to display every new destination address generated.
When this option is turned on, matching packets will be accept from all
when this option is enabled hping can't detect the right outgoing
interface for the packets, so you should use the
option to select the desired outgoing interface.
-t --ttl time to live
Using this option you can set
TTL (time to live)
of outgoing packets, it's likely that you will use this with
options. If in doubt try
`hping3 some.host.com -t 1 --traceroute'.
Set ip->id field. Default id is random but if fragmentation is turned on
and id isn't specified it will be
getpid() & 0xFFFF,
to implement a better solution is in TODO list.
Set the ip protocol in RAW IP mode.
id from Windows* systems before Win2k has different byte ordering, if this
option is enable
hping3 will properly display id replies from those Windows.
Display id increments instead of id. See the
for more information. Increments aren't computed as id[N]-id[N-1] but
using packet loss compensation. See relid.c for more information.
Split packets in more fragments, this may be useful in order to test
IP stacks fragmentation performance and to test if some
packet filter is so weak that can be passed using tiny fragments
(anachronistic). Default 'virtual mtu' is 16 bytes. see also
Set more fragments IP flag, use this option if you want that target
host send an
ICMP time-exceeded during reassembly.
Set don't fragment IP flag, this can be used to perform
MTU path discovery.
-g --fragoff fragment offset value
Set the fragment offset.
-m --mtu mtu value
Set different 'virtual mtu' than 16 when fragmentation is enabled. If
packets size is greater that 'virtual mtu' fragmentation is automatically
-o --tos hex_tos
Type Of Service (TOS),
for more information try
Record route. Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in each packet sent and
displays the route buffer of returned packets. Note that the IP header
is only large enough for nine such routes. Many hosts ignore or discard
this option. Also note that using hping you are able to use record route
even if target host filter ICMP. Record route is an IP option, not
an ICMP option, so you can use record route option even in TCP and UDP
ICMP RELATED OPTIONS
-C --icmptype type
Set icmp type, default is
ICMP echo request
-K --icmpcode code
Set icmp code, default is 0 (implies --icmp).
Set IP version of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is 4.
Set IP header length of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is 5 (5 words of 32 bits).
Set IP packet length of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is the real
Set IP id of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is random.
Set IP protocol of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is TCP.
Set ICMP checksum, for default is the valid checksum.
Alias for --icmptype 13 (to send ICMP timestamp requests).
Alias for --icmptype 17 (to send ICMP address mask requests).
TCP/UDP RELATED OPTIONS
-s --baseport source port
hping3 uses source port in order to guess replies sequence number. It
starts with a base source port number, and increase this number for each
packet sent. When packet is received sequence number can be computed as
replies.dest.port - base.source.port.
Default base source port is random, using this option you are able to
set different number. If you need that source port not be increased for
each sent packet use the
-p --destport [+][+]dest port
Set destination port, default is 0. If '+' character precedes dest port
number (i.e. +1024) destination port will be increased for each reply
received. If double '+' precedes dest port number (i.e. ++1024), destination
port will be increased for each packet sent.
By default destination port can be modified interactively using
keep still source port, see
for more information.
Set TCP window size. Default is 64.
Set fake tcp data offset. Normal data offset is tcphdrlen / 4.
Set the TCP sequence number.
Set the TCP ack.
This option can be used in order to collect sequence numbers generated
by target host. This can be useful when you need to analyze whether
TCP sequence number is predictable. Output example:
The first column reports the sequence number, the second difference
between current and last sequence number. As you can see target host's sequence
numbers are predictable.
Send packets with a bad UDP/TCP checksum.
Enable the TCP MSS option and set it to the given value.
Enable the TCP timestamp option, and try to guess the timestamp update
frequency and the remote system uptime.
Set FIN tcp flag.
Set SYN tcp flag.
Set RST tcp flag.
Set PUSH tcp flag.
Set ACK tcp flag.
Set URG tcp flag.
Set Xmas tcp flag.
Set Ymas tcp flag.
-d --data data size
Set packet body size. Warning, using --data 40 hping3 will not generate
0 byte packets but protocol_header+40 bytes. hping3 will display
packet size information as first line output, like this:
HPING www.yahoo.com (ppp0 126.96.36.199): NO FLAGS are set, 40 headers + 40 data bytes
-E --file filename
contents to fill packet's data.
-e --sign signature
bytes of data with
is bigger than data size an error message will be displayed.
If you don't specify the data size hping will use the signature
size as data size.
This option can be used safely with
option, remainder data space will be filled using
Dump received packets in hex.
Dump received packets' printable characters.
Enable safe protocol, using this option lost packets in file transfers
will be resent. For example in order to send file /etc/passwd from host
A to host B you may use the following:
If you are using
option, tell you when EOF has been reached. Moreover prevent that other end
accept more packets. Please, for more information see the
Traceroute mode. Using this option hping3 will increase ttl for each
ICMP time to live 0 during transit
hping3 host --traceroute.
This option implies --bind and --ttl 1. You can override the ttl of 1
using the --ttl option. Since 2.0.0 stable it prints RTT information.
Keep the TTL fixed in traceroute mode, so you can monitor just one hop
in the route. For example, to monitor how the 5th hop changes or
how its RTT changes you can try
hping3 host --traceroute --ttl 5 --tr-keep-ttl.
If this option is specified hping will exit once the first packet
that isn't an ICMP time exceeded is received. This better emulates
the traceroute behavior.
Don't show RTT information in traceroute mode. The ICMP time exceeded RTT
information aren't even calculated if this option is set.
Exit with last received packet tcp->th_flag as exit code. Useful for scripts
that need, for example, to known if the port 999 of some host reply with
SYN/ACK or with RST in response to SYN, i.e. the service is up or down.
TCP OUTPUT FORMAT
The standard TCP output format is the following:
len=46 ip=192.168.1.1 flags=RA DF seq=0 ttl=255 id=0 win=0 rtt=0.4 ms
is the size, in bytes, of the data captured from the data link layer
excluding the data link header size. This may not match the IP datagram
size due to low level transport layer padding.
is the source ip address.
are the TCP flags, R for RESET, S for SYN, A for ACK, F for FIN,
P for PUSH, U for URGENT, X for not standard 0x40, Y for not standard
If the reply contains
the IP header has the don't fragment bit set.
is the sequence number of the packet, obtained using the source
port for TCP/UDP packets, the sequence field for ICMP packets.
is the IP ID field.
is the TCP window size.
is the round trip time in milliseconds.
If you run hping using the
command line switch it will display additional information about the
is the type of service field of the IP header.
is the IP total len field.
seq and ack
are the sequence and acknowledge 32bit numbers in the TCP header.
is the TCP header checksum value.
is the TCP urgent pointer value.
UDP OUTPUT FORMAT
The standard output format is:
len=46 ip=192.168.1.1 seq=0 ttl=64 id=0 rtt=6.0 ms
The field meaning is just the same as the TCP output meaning of the
ICMP OUTPUT FORMAT
An example of ICMP output is:
ICMP Port Unreachable from ip=192.168.1.1 name=nano.marmoc.net
It is very simple to understand. It starts with the string "ICMP"
followed by the description of the ICMP error, Port Unreachable
in the example. The ip field is the IP source address of the IP
datagram containing the ICMP error, the name field is just the
numerical address resolved to a name (a dns PTR request) or UNKNOWN if the
The ICMP Time exceeded during transit or reassembly format is a bit
TTL 0 during transit from ip=192.168.1.1 name=nano.marmoc.net
TTL 0 during reassembly from ip=188.8.131.52 name=UNKNOWN
The only difference is the description of the error, it starts with
Even using the --end and --safe options to transfer files the final packet
will be padded with 0x00 bytes.
Data is read without care about alignment, but alignment is enforced
in the data structures.
This will not be a problem under i386 but, while usually the TCP/IP
headers are naturally aligned, may create problems with different
processors and bogus packets if there is some unaligned access around
the code (hopefully none).
On solaris hping does not work on the loopback interface. This seems
a solaris problem, as stated in the tcpdump-workers mailing list,
so the libpcap can't do nothing to handle it properly.