is the parent of all processes on the system, it is executed by the kernel
and is responsible for starting all other processes; it is the parent of
all processes whose natural parents have died and it is responsible for
reaping those when they die.
Processes managed by
are known as jobs and are defined by files in the
directory, unless overridden (see below). See
for more details on configuring Upstart.
is an event-based init daemon. This means that jobs will be automatically
started and stopped by changes that occur to the system state, including
as a result of jobs starting and stopping.
This is different to dependency-based init daemons which start a specified
set of goal jobs, and resolve the order in which they should be started and
other jobs required by iterating their dependencies.
For more information on starting and stopping jobs, as well as emitting
events that will automatically start and stop jobs, see the manual page for
The primary event is the
event, emitted when the daemon has finished loading its configuration.
Other useful events are the
events emitted as jobs change state.
daemon does not keep track of runlevels itself, instead they are implemented
entirely by its userspace tools. The event emitted to signify a change
of runlevel is the
event. For more information see its manual page.
Options are passed to
by placing them on the kernel command-line.
Read job configuration files from a directory other than
Suppress emission of the initial startup event. This option should only
be used for testing since it will stop the
daemon from starting any jobs automatically.
Connect to the D-Bus session bus. This should only be used for testing.
Specify a different initial startup event from the standard
Outputs verbose messages about job state changes and event emissions to the
system console or log, useful for debugging boot.
is not normally executed by a user process, and expects to have a process
id of 1. If this is not the case, it will actually execute
and pass all arguments to that. See that manual page for further details.