This utility fetches and potentially changes SCSI device (e.g.
disk) mode pages. Inquiry data including Vital Product Data (VPD)
pages can also be displayed. Commands associated with starting
and stopping the medium; loading and unloading the medium; and
other housekeeping function may also be issued by this utility.
Of the three invocations shown in the synopsis, the first is the
most general. The second variant that uses --enumerate is
for dumping information held in sdparm's internal tables. The last
variant is for Windows only and lists the available device names;
see the OPTIONS entry for --wscan.
If no options (other than DEVICE) are given then a selection of
common mode page fields for that device are listed. If the --long
option is also given then a description of the fields is placed on the
right of each line. If the --all option is given then all known
mode page fields for that device are listed. Individual fields can be
displayed with the --get=STR option (e.g. '--get=WCE' to fetch
the state of the Writeback Cache Enable field).
This utility completes with an exit status of 0 when successful. For other
values see the EXIT STATUS section below.
One or more DEVICE arguments can be given. The utility will
essentially apply the given options to each DEVICE in the list.
If an error is detected, it is noted and the utility continues.
Error value 5 (file open or close problem) is treated as lower priority
when other errors are detected. The exit status is the most recently
detected error value (excluding error value 5 if other errors have
been detected). If all actions succeed the exit status is zero.
By default this utility shows mode pages that are common to all
transport protocols. These are termed as "generic" mode pages.
If there is no match on a generic mode page name or field then
those pages specific to the SAS transport are checked.
Transport protocol specific mode pages are selected with
the --transport=TN option. See the TRANSPORT section below.
Vendor specific mode pages are selected with the --vendor=VN option.
See the VENDORS section below.
Although originally for SCSI disks (or storage devices that appear to the
OS as SCSI disks) many of the mode pages are for other SCSI device types.
These include CD/DVD players that use the ATAPI (or any other) transport,
SCSI tapes drives and SCSI enclosures.
When the --inquiry option is given without a page number then the
Device Identification VPD page (page number 0x83) is requested and
if found it is decoded and output. If no page number is given and
the --all option is given then a list of VPD page names (but not
their contents) supported by the DEVICE is output. When both
the --inquiry and --page=PG options are given then
the VPD page can be specified as an abbreviation (e.g. "sp" for the SCSI
ports VPD page) or numerically (e.g. "0x88"). If a VPD page is returned
by the DEVICE but sdparm cannot decode it or the --hex
option is given then it is output in hex.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options as well.
If an option takes a numeric argument then that argument is assumed to
be decimal unless otherwise indicated (e.g. with a leading "0x" or a
trailing "h"). The options are in alphabetical order, based on the long
output all recognized fields for the device type (e.g. disk) of the
DEVICE. Without this option (or the --page=PG[,SPG] option) the
default action is to output a relatively small number of commonly used fields
from different pages. When a specific (mode) page number is given with the
--page=PG[,SPG] option then all the fields of that page are
output (irrespective of the setting of this option). For this option's action
when used with the --enumerate option see the ENUMERATE section below.
In its simplest form STR contains a field acronym_name or a field
numerical descriptor. In the absence of an explicit value
argument (e.g. '--clear=WCE=1'), the field has its value cleared to zero.
See the PARAMETERS section below.
Perform given CMD. See section below on COMMANDS. To enumerate supported
commands use '-e -C x' (using any CMD name, valid or otherwise).
disable block descriptors. This is a bit in MODE SENSE cdbs that
rarely needs to be set. One known case is a MODE SENSE 6 issued to a
Reduced Block Commands (RBC) device where the RBC standard says it
shall be set.
sets the given mode page to its default values. Requires the
--page=PG[,SPG] option to be given to specify the mode page. To make
the default mode page values also the saved mode page values, use the
--save option as well.
when set inhibits changes being placed in the DEVICE's mode page.
Instead the mode data that would have been sent to a MODE SELECT
command, is output in ASCII hex to the console. This option is mainly
lists out descriptive information about the pages and fields known to this
utility. Ignores the DEVICE argument and other options apart from
the --all, --inquiry, --long, --page=PG[,SPG],
--transport=TN and --vendor=VN. If --enumerate is
given without other options then the known (generic) mode pages are listed.
See the ENUMERATE section below.
Some devices, bridges and/or drivers attempt crude transformations between
mode sense 6 and 10 byte commands without correctly rebuilding the response.
This will cause the response to be mis-interpreted (usually with an
error saying the response is malformed). With this option, the length
of the response is checked, and if it looks wrong, various corrections
are attempted. This option will also allow mode pages that don't belong
to the current device's peripheral type to be listed.
In its simplest form STR contains a field acronym_name or a field
numerical descriptor. The field is fetched from mode page. See the PARAMETERS
section below. The --long and --hex options effect the output
format. Also if a value of "1" is given (e.g. '--get=WCE=1') only the
current value is output (i.e. not the change mask, the default value and the
output the usage message then exit.
rather than trying to decode mode (or VPD) pages, print them out in
hex. When used with the --get=STR option the corresponding current,
changeable, default and saved values are output in hex, prefixed by "0x"
and space separated. If a value of "1" is given with the --get=STR
option (e.g. '--get=WCE=1') then only the current value is output in hex,
prefixed by "0x". If a value of "2" is given with the --get=STR
option then only the current value is output as a (signed) integer. This
option can be used multiple times (e.g. '-HH'). Useful with the ATA
Information VPD page which usually outputs its IDENTIFY (PACKET) DEVICE
response in 16 bit hex words; with '-HH' outputs that response in hex
bytes; with '-HHH' outputs the same response in a format suitable
for 'hdparm --Istdin' to decode.
output INQUIRY VPD pages. In the absence of this option the default action
is to output mode pages. If the --inquiry option is given without
the --page=PG[,SPG] option then the device identification VPD
page (0x83) is decoded and output. If this option and the --all
option are given then the supported VPD pages page (0x0) is decoded and
output extra information. In the case of mode page fields a description (with
units if applicable) is output to the right. If used twice, then for some
fields more information about its values is given on one or more following
lines, each prefixed by a tab character. For usage with --enumerate
see the ENUMERATE section below.
for a mode page that can have descriptors, the number of descriptors for the
given page on the DEVICE is output. Otherwise 0 is output.
supply the page number (PG) and optionally the sub page
number (SPG) of the mode (or VPD) page to fetch. These numbers are
interpreted as decimal unless prefixed with "0x" or a trailing. Sub page
numbers are only valid for mode pages (not VPD pages). Alternatively an
abbreviation for a page can be given (see next entry).
a two or three letter abbreviation for a page can be given. Known mode page
abbreviations are checked first followed by known VPD page abbreviations.
For example '--page=ca' matches the caching mode page. If no match is found
then an error is issued and a list of possibilities in the current context
is given (so '-p x' can be quite useful). If the STR matches a known
VPD page abbreviation then the --inquiry option is assumed. For
usage with --enumerate see the ENUMERATE section below.
suppress output of device name followed by the vendor, product and revision
strings fetched from an INQUIRY response. Without this option such a line is
typically the first line output by sdparm. Reduces output from the device
identification VPD page, typically to one line (or none) for each of di_lu,
di_port, di_target and di_asis.
override other logic to open DEVICE in read-only mode. This option
may be useful if a command is being sent to an ATA disk via a SCSI
command set. For example in Linux '-C stop' may require this option to
stop an ATA disk being restarted immediately.
when a mode page is being modified (by using the --clear=STR and/or
--set=STR options) then the default action is to modify only the
current values mode page. When this option is given then the corresponding
value(s) in the saved values mode page is also changed. The next time the
device is power cycled (or reset) the saved values mode page becomes (i.e. is
copied to) the current values mode page. See NOTES section below.
in its simplest form STR contains a field acronym_name or a field
numerical descriptor. In the absence of an explicit value, each acronym_name
has its value set to (all) ones. This means a 16 bit field will be set to
0xffff which is 65535 in decimal. Alternatively each acronym_name or numerical
descriptor may be followed by "=<n>" where <n> is the value to set that field
to. See the PARAMETERS section below.
The default action of this utility is to issue MODE SENSE and MODE SELECT
SCSI commands with 10 byte cdbs. When this option is given the 6 byte cdb
variants are used. RBC and old SCSI devices may need this option. This
utility outputs a suggestion to use this option if the SCSI status indicates
that the 10 byte cdb variant is not supported.
Specifies the transport protocol where TN is either a number in
the range 0 to 15 (inclusive) or an abbreviation (e.g. "fcp" for
the Fibre Channel Protocol). One way to list available transport protocols
numbers and their associated abbreviations is to give an invalid
transport protocol number such as '-t x'; another way is '-e -l'.
Specifies the vendor (i.e. manufacturer) where VN is either a number (0
or more) or an abbreviation (e.g. "sea" for Seagate disk vendor specific).
One way to list available vendor numbers and their associated abbreviations
is to give an invalid vendor number such as '-M x'; another way is '-e -l'.
increase the level of verbosity, (i.e. debug output). In some cases
more decoding is done (e.g. fields within a standard INQUIRY response).
print the version string and then exit.
this option is available in Windows only. It lists storage device names
and the corresponding volumes, if any. When used twice it adds the "bus
type" of the closest transport (e.g. a SATA disk in a USB connected
enclosure has bus type Usb). When used three times a SCSI adapter scan
is added. When used four times only a SCSI adapter scan is shown.
See examples below and the "Win32 port" section in the README file.
A mode page for which no abbreviation is known (e.g. a vendor specific mode
page) can be listed in hexadecimal by using the option
combination '--page=PG --hex'.
Numbers input to sdparm (e.g. in the command line arguments) are assumed
to be in decimal unless there is a hexadecimal indicator. A hexadecimal
indicator is either a leading '0x' or '0X' (i.e. the C language convention)
or a trailing 'h' or 'H' (i.e. the convention used at www.t10.org ). In
the case of --page= either a string or number is expected, so hex
numbers like 'ch' (12) should be prefixed by a zero (e.g. '0ch').
The SPC-4 draft (rev 2) says that devices that implement no
distinction between current and saved pages can return an
error (ILLEGAL REQUEST, invalid field in cdb) if the SP bit (which
corresponds to the --save option) is _not_ set. In such cases
the --save option needs to be given.
If the --save option is given but the existing mode page indicates (via
its PS bit) that the page is not savable, then this utility generates
an error message. That message suggests to try again without the
Since the device identification VPD page (acronym_name "di") potentially
contains a lot of diverse designators, several associated acronyms are
available. They are "di_lu" for designators associated with the
addressed logical unit, "di_port" for designators associated with the
target port (which the command arrived via) and "di_target" for
designators associated with the target device. When "di" is used
designators are grouped by lu, then port and then target device.
To see all designators decoded in the order that they appear in the
VPD page use "di_asis".
In the linux kernel 2.6 series any device node that understands a SCSI
command set (e.g. SCSI disks and CD/DVD drives) may be specified. More
precisely the driver that "owns" the device node must support the SG_IO
ioctl. In the lk 2.4 series only SCSI generic (sg) device nodes support
the SG_IO ioctl. However in the lk 2.4 series other SCSI device nodes are
mapped within this utility to their corresponding sg device nodes. So if
there is a SCSI disk at /dev/sda then 'sdparm /dev/sda' will work in both
the lk 2.6 and lk 2.4 series. However if there is an ATAPI cd/dvd drive
at /dev/hdc then 'sdparm /dev/hdc' will only work in the lk 2.6 series.
In the Linux 2.6 series, especially with ATA disks, using sdparm to
stop (spin down) a disk may not be sufficient and other mechanisms will
start the disk again some time later. The user might additionally mark
the disk as "offline" with 'echo offline > /sys/block/sda/device/state'
where sda is the block name of the disk. To restart the disk "offline"
can be replaced with "running".
In their simplest form the --clear=, --get= and
--set= options (or their short forms) take an acronym_name such
as "WCE". In the case of '--get=WCE' the value of "Writeback Cache Enable"
in the caching mode page will be fetched. In the case of '--set=WCE'
that bit will be set (to one). In the case of '--clear=WCE' that bit
will be cleared (to zero). When an acronym_name is given then the mode page
is imputed from that acronym_name (e.g. WCE is in the caching mode page).
Instead of an acronym_name a field within a mode page can be described
numerically with a <start_byte>:<start_bit>:<num_bits> tuple. These
are the <start_byte> (origin 0) within the mode page, a <start_bit> (0 to
7 inclusive) and <num_bits> (1 to 64 inclusive). For example, the low level
representation of the RCD bit (the "Read Cache Disable bit in the caching
mode page) is "2:0:1". The <start_byte> can optionally be given in
hex (e.g. '--set=0x2:0:1' or '--set=2h:0:1'). With this form the
--page= option is required to establish which mode page is to be
Either form can optionally be followed by "=<val>". By default <val> is
decimal but can be given in hex in the normal fashion. Here are some
examples: '--set=2h:0:1=1h' and '-s MRIE=0x3'. When the acronym_name
or numeric form following --clear= is not given an explicit '=<val>'
then the value defaults to zero. When the acronym_name or numeric form
following --set= is not given an explicit '=<val>' then the value
defaults to "all ones" (i.e. as many as <num_bits> permits). For
example '--clear=WCE' and '--clear=WCE=0' have the same meaning: clear
Writeback Cache Enable or, put more simply: turn off the writeback cache.
Multiple fields within the same mode page can be changed by giving a comma
separated list of acronym_names and/or the numerical form. For
Some mode page have multiple descriptors. They typically have a fixed header
section at the start of the mode page that includes a field containing the
number of descriptors that follow. Following the header is a variable number
of descriptors. An example is the SAS Phy Control and Discover mode page. An
acronym_name may include a trailing '.<num>' where "<num>" is a descriptor
number (origin 0). For example '-t sas -g PHID.0' and '-t sas -g PHID'
will yield the phy identifier of the first descriptor of the above mode
page; '-t sas -g PHID.1' will yield the phy identifier of the second
The --enumerate option essentially dumps out static information held
by this utility. A list of --enumerate variants and their actions
follows. For brevity subsequent examples of options are shown in their
--enumerate list generic mode page information
-e --all list generic mode page contents
-e --page=rw list contents of read write error
recovery mode page
-e --inquiry list VPD pages this utility can decode
-e --long list generic mode pages, transport
protocols, mode pages for each
supported transport protocol and
-e -l --all additionally list the contents of
each mode page
-e --transport=fcp list mode pages for the fcp
-e -t fcp --all additionally list the contents of
each mode page
-e --vendor=sea list vendor specific mode pages for
-e -M sea --all additionally list the contents of vendor
specific mode pages for "sea" (Seagate)
-e -p pcd -l list contents of SAS phy control and
discovery mode page plus (due to "-l")
some descfriptor format information
When known mode pages are listed (via the --enumerate option) each
line starts with a two or three letter abbreviation. This is followed by
the page number (in hex prefixed by "0x") optionally followed by a
comma and the subpage number. Finally the descriptive name of the mode
page (e.g. as found in SPC-4) is output.
When known parameters (fields) of a mode page are listed, each line
starts with an acronym (indented a few spaces). This will match (or
be an acronym for) the description for that field found in the (draft)
standards. Next are three numbers, separated by colons, surrounded by
brackets. These are the start byte (in hex, prefixed by "0x") of the
beginning of the field within the mode page; the starting bit (0 through 7
inclusive) and then the number of bits. The descriptive name of the
parameter (field) is then given. If appropriate the descriptive name
includes units (e.g. "(ms)" means the units are milliseconds). Adding
the '-ll' option will list information about possible field values
for selected mode page parameters.
Mode parameters for which the num_bits is greater than 1 can be
viewed as unsigned integers. Often 16 and 32 bit fields are set
to 0xffff and 0xffffffff respectively (all ones) which usually
has a special meaning (see drafts). This utility outputs such values
as "-1" to save space (rather than their unsigned integer
equivalents). "-1" can also be given as the value to a mode page
field acronym (e.g. '--set=INTT=-1' sets the interval timer field
in the Informational Exceptions control mode page to 0xffffffff).
SCSI transport protocols are a relatively specialized area
that can be safely ignored by the majority of users.
Some transport protocols have protocol specific mode pages. These are usually
the disconnect-reconnect (0x2), the protocol specific logical unit (0x18)
and the protocol specific port (0x19) mode pages. In some cases the latter
mode page has several subpages. The most common transport protocol
abbreviations likely to be used are "fcp", "spi" and "sas".
Many of the field names are re-used in the same position so the acronym_name
namespaces have been divided between generic mode pages (i.e. when the
--transport= option is _not_ given) and a namespace for each
transport protocol. A LUPID field from the protocol specific logical
unit (0x18) mode page and the PPID field from protocol specific
port (0x19) mode page are included in the generic modes pages; this is so
the respective (transport) protocol identifiers can be seen. In most cases
the user will know what the "port" transport is (i.e. the same transport as
the HBA in the computer) but the logical unit's transport could be different.
SCSI leaves a lot of space for vendor specific information. Often this is
described in product manuals. The --vendor=VN (or -M=VN)
option allows known vendor specific mode pages to be examined and/or
modified by acronym.
In this utility the syntax and semantics of vendor specific
mode pages is very similar to those of transport protocol specific
mode pages. Both cannot be specified together. Vendor specific
modes pages can still be accessed numerically (as shown at the
end of the EXAMPLES section).
The command option sends a SCSI command to the DEVICE. If the
command fails then this is reflected in the non-zero exit status.
To obtain more information about the error use the -v option.
sends a READ CAPACITY command (valid for
disks and cd/dvd media). If successful yields "blocks: " [the number
of blocks], "block_length: " [typically either 512 or 2048]
and "capacity_mib: " [capacity in MibiBytes (1048576 byte units)].
stops the medium and ejects it from the device.
Note that ejection (by command or button) may be prevented in which case
the 'unlock' command may be useful in extreme cases.
Typically only appropriate for cd/dvd drives and disk drives with removable
media. Objects if sent to another peripheral device type (but objection
can be overridden with '-f' option).
loads the medium and and starts it (i.e. spins it up).
See 'eject' command for supported device types.
lists the various formats that a CD/DVD/HD-DVD/BD drive supports. These are
called "profiles" in the MMC standard. The profiles are listed one per line.
If media is in the drive then the profile that matches the media (if any)
has an "*" to the right of the line.
sends the "Test Unit Ready" SCSI command to the
DEVICE. No error is reported if the device will respond to data
requests (e.g. READ) in a reasonable timescale. For example, if a disk
is stopped then it will report "not ready". All devices should respond
to this command.
sends a REQUEST SENSE command. It reports a hardware
threshold exceeded, warning or low power condition if flagged. If a progress
indication is present (e.g. during a format) then it will be output as a
percentage. Yields a process status of 0 if the command succeeds and the
sense key is 0; else yields 1. The --quiet option can be used to
lessen output, and --hex to output sense data in hex.
permits the speed of a CD, DVD, HD_DVD or BD disc in a drive to be set (or
at least influenced). It has this format: --command=speed=SPEED
where SPEED is in kilobytes per second. In this case a kilobyte is 1000
bytes. The "times one" speed for a CD is 176.4 kB/s, for a DVD is
1350 kB/s and for both HD-DVD and BD it is 4500 kB/s. If SPEED is zero then
the drive is set to the speed that it considers gives optimal performance.
This command sends a SET STREAMING multi-media command (MMC) to the drive.
The EXACT bit is clear so the drive will round the given SPEED as necessary.
The command is designed to control read speed; setting write speed should
be left to "burning" programs.
starts the medium (i.e. spins it up). Harmless if medium has already been
started. See 'eject' command for supported device types. If the DEVICE
is an ATA disk in Linux the '--readonly' option may be required.
stops the medium (i.e. spins it down). Harmless if
medium has already been stopped. See 'eject' command for supported device
types. If the DEVICE is an ATA disk in Linux the '--readonly'
option may be required. See the NOTES section above.
sends a SYNCHRONIZE CACHE command. The device should
flush any data held in its (volatile) buffers to the media.
tells a device to allow medium removal. It uses the SCSI "prevent allow
medium removal" command. This is desperation stuff, possibly overriding a
prevention applied by the OS on a mounted file system. The "eject" utility
(from the "eject" package) is more graceful and should be tried first. This
command is only appropriate for devices with removable media.
For loading and ejecting tapes the mt utility should be used (i.e. not
these commands). The 'ready' command is valid for tape devices.
To list the common (generic) mode parameters of a disk:
To list the designators within the device identification VPD page
of a disk:
sdparm --inquiry /dev/sda
To see all parameters for the caching mode page:
sdparm --page=ca /dev/sda
To see all parameters for the caching mode page
with parameter descriptions to the right:
sdparm --page=ca --long /dev/sda
To get the WCE values (current changeable default and saved) in hex:
sdparm -g WCE -H /dev/sda
0x01 0x00 0x01 0x01
To get the WCE current value in hex:
sdparm -g WCE=1 -H /dev/sda
To set the "Writeback Cache Enable" bit in the current values page:
sdparm --set=WCE /dev/sda
To set the "Writeback Cache Enable" bit in the current and saved values page:
sdparm --set=WCE --save /dev/sda
To set the "Writeback Cache Enable" and clear "Read Cache Disable":
sdparm --set=WCE --clear=RCD --save /dev/sda
The previous example can also by written as:
sdparm -s WCE=1,RCD=0 -S /dev/sda
To re-establish the manufacturer's defaults in the current and saved
values of the caching mode page:
sdparm --page=ca --defaults --save /dev/sda
If an ATAPI cd/dvd drive is at /dev/hdc then its common (mode) parameters
could be listed in the lk 2.6 series with:
If there is a DVD in the drive at /dev/hdc then it could be ejected in the
lk 2.6 series with:
sdparm --command=eject /dev/hdc
If the ejection is being prevented by software then that can be
sdparm --command=unlock /dev/hdc
One disk vendor has a "Performance Mode" bit (PM) in the vendor specific
unit attention mode page [0x0,0x0]. PM=0 is server mode (the default)
while PM=1 is desktop mode. Desktop mode can be set (both current and
saved values) with:
sdparm --page=0 --set=2:7:1=1 --save /dev/sda
The resultant change can be viewed in hex with the --hex option as
there are no acronyms for vendor extensions yet. The PM bit is now covered
by vendor specific mode pages and the above can also be accomplished with:
sdparm --vendor=sea --set=PM --save /dev/sda
What follows are some examples from Windows using the '--wscan' option. The
idea is to list the storage device names on the system that might be invoked
by other uses of sdparm.
So 'sdparm -a CDROM0' and 'sdparm -a E' will show all the (known) mode page
fields for the Matshita DVD/CD drive. By using the '--wsacan' option twice,
the bus type (as seen by the OS) is added to the output:
And the pattern continues to add a SCSI adapter scan. This may be useful
if there are specialized storage related devices (e.g. a SES device in
an enclosure) but does add much extra information in this case.
To aid scripts that call sdparm, the exit status is set to indicate
success (0) or failure (1 or more). Note that some of the lower values
correspond to the SCSI sense key values. The exit status values are:
syntax error. Either illegal command line options, options with bad
arguments or a combination of options that is not permitted.
the DEVICE reports that it is not ready for the operation
requested. The device may be in the process of becoming ready (e.g.
spinning up but not at speed) so the utility may work after a wait.
the DEVICE reports a medium or hardware error (or a blank
check). For example an attempt to read a corrupted block on a disk
will yield this value.
the DEVICE reports an "illegal request" with an additional
sense code other than "invalid operation code". This is often a
supported command with a field set requesting an unsupported
capability. For commands that require a "service action" field
this value can indicate that the command is not supported.
the DEVICE reports a "unit attention" condition. This usually
indicates that something unrelated to the requested command has
occurred (e.g. a device reset) potentially before the current SCSI
command was sent. The requested command has not been executed by the
device. Note that unit attention conditions are usually only reported
once by a device.
the DEVICE reports an illegal request with an additional
sense code of "invalid operation code" which means that it doesn't
support the requested command.
the DEVICE reports an aborted command. In some cases aborted
commands can be retried immediately (e.g. if the transport aborted
the command due to congestion).
the utility is unable to open, close or use the given DEVICE.
The given file name could be incorrect or there may be permission
problems. Adding the -v option may give more information.
the DEVICE reports it has a check condition but "no sense".
Some polling commands (e.g. REQUEST SENSE) can react this way.
It is unlikely that this value will occur as an exit status.
the DEVICE reports a "recovered error". The requested command
was successful. Most likely a utility will report a recovered error
to stderr and continue, probably leaving the utility with an exit
status of 0 .
the command sent to DEVICE has timed out. This occurs in Linux
only; in other ports a command timeout will appear as a transport (or OS)
the response to a SCSI command failed sanity checks.
the DEVICE reports it has a check condition but the error
doesn't fit into any of the above categories.
any errors that can't be categorized into values 1 to 98 may yield
this value. This includes transport and operating system errors
after the command has been sent to the device.
Most of the error conditions reported above will be repeatable (an
example of one that is not is "unit attention") so the utility can
be run again with the -v option (or several) to obtain more