stunnel can be used to add SSL functionality to commonly used Inetd daemons like POP-2, POP-3, and IMAP servers, to standalone daemons like NNTP, SMTP and HTTP, and in tunneling PPP over network sockets without changes to the source code.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (firstname.lastname@example.org)
chroot keeps stunnel in chrooted jail. CApath, CRLpath, pid and exec are located inside the jail and the patches have to be relative to the directory specified with chroot.
To have libwrap (TCP Wrappers) control effective in a chrooted environment you also have to copy its configuration files (/etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny) there.
default: no compression
zlib compression of OpenSSL 0.9.8 or above is not backward compatible with OpenSSL 0.9.7.
rle compression is currently not implemented by the OpenSSL library.
Level is a one of the syslog level names or numbers emerg (0), alert (1), crit (2), err (3), warning (4), notice (5), info (6), or debug (7). All logs for the specified level and all levels numerically less than it will be shown. Use debug = debug or debug = 7 for greatest debugging output. The default is notice (5).
The syslog facility 'daemon' will be used unless a facility name is supplied. (Facilities are not supported on Win32.)
Case is ignored for both facilities and levels.
Entropy Gathering Daemon socket to use to feed OpenSSL random number generator. (Available only if compiled with OpenSSL 0.9.5a or higher)
default: software-only cryptography
There's an example in 'EXAMPLES' section.
Special commands ``LOAD'' and ``INIT'' can be used to load and initialize the engine cryptogaphic module.
This option allows to disable entering FIPS mode if stunnel was compiled with FIPS 140-2 support.
Stay in foreground (don't fork) and log to stderr instead of via syslog (unless output is specified).
default: background in daemon mode
/dev/stdout device can be used to redirect log messages to the standard output (for example to log them with daemontools splogger).
If the argument is empty, then no pid file will be created.
pid path is relative to chroot directory if specified.
Number of bytes of data read from random seed files. With SSL versions less than 0.9.5a, also determines how many bytes of data are considered sufficient to seed the PRNG. More recent OpenSSL versions have a builtin function to determine when sufficient randomness is available.
The SSL library will use data from this file first to seed the random number generator.
On Unix: inetd mode service name for TCP Wrapper library.
On NT/2000/XP: NT service name in the Control Panel.
The values for linger option are l_onof:l_linger. The values for time are tv_sec:tv_usec.
socket = l:SO_LINGER=1:60 set one minute timeout for closing local socket socket = r:TCP_NODELAY=1 turn off the Nagle algorithm for remote sockets socket = r:SO_OOBINLINE=1 place out-of-band data directly into the receive data stream for remote sockets socket = a:SO_REUSEADDR=0 disable address reuse (enabled by default) socket = a:SO_BINDTODEVICE=lo only accept connections on loopback interface
Note that if you wish to run stunnel in inetd mode (where it is provided a network socket by a server such as inetd, xinetd, or tcpserver) then you should read the section entitled INETD MODE below.
If no host specified, defaults to all IP addresses for the local host.
This is the directory in which stunnel will look for certificates when using the verify. Note that the certificates in this directory should be named XXXXXXXX.0 where XXXXXXXX is the hash value of the DER encoded subject of the cert (the first 4 bytes of the MD5 hash in least significant byte order).
CApath path is relative to chroot directory if specified.
This file contains multiple CA certificates, used with the verify.
A PEM is always needed in server mode. Specifying this flag in client mode will use this certificate chain as a client side certificate chain. Using client side certs is optional. The certificates must be in PEM format and must be sorted starting with the certificate to the highest level (root CA).
A colon delimited list of the ciphers to allow in the SSL connection. For example DES-CBC3-SHA:IDEA-CBC-MD5
default: no (server mode)
If no host is specified, the host defaults to localhost.
Multiple connect options are allowed in a single service section.
If host resolves to multiple addresses and/or if multiple connect options are specified, then the remote address is chosen using a round-robin algorithm.
This is the directory in which stunnel will look for CRLs when using the verify. Note that the CRLs in this directory should be named XXXXXXXX.0 where XXXXXXXX is the hash value of the CRL.
CRLpath path is relative to chroot directory if specified.
This file contains multiple CRLs, used with the verify.
The engines are numbered starting from 1.
exec path is relative to chroot directory if specified.
Quoting is currently not supported. Arguments are separated with arbitrary number of whitespaces.
rr (round robin) - fair load distribution prio (priority) - use the order specified in config file
Private key is needed to authenticate certificate owner. Since this file should be kept secret it should only be readable to its owner. On Unix systems you can use the following command:
chmod 600 keyfile
default: value of cert option
Several OCSPflag can be used to specify multiple flags.
currently supported flags: NOCERTS, NOINTERN NOSIGS, NOCHAIN, NOVERIFY, NOEXPLICIT, NOCASIGN, NODELEGATED, NOCHECKS, TRUSTOTHER, RESPID_KEY, NOTIME
The parameter is the OpenSSL option name as described in the SSL_CTX_set_options(3ssl) manual, but without SSL_OP_ prefix. Several options can be used to specify multiple options.
For example for compatibility with erroneous Eudora SSL implementation the following option can be used:
options = DONT_INSERT_EMPTY_FRAGMENTS
currently supported: cifs, connect, imap, nntp, pop3, smtp, pgsql
currently supported: basic, NTLM
Currently authentication type only applies to 'connect' protocol.
Allowed options: all, SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1
Re-write address to appear as if wrapped daemon is connecting from the SSL client machine instead of the machine running stunnel.
This option is currently available in:
remote mode (I<connect> option) on Linux >=2.6.28 remote mode (I<connect> option) 2.2.x local mode (I<exec> option)
Remote mode (either 2.2.x and >=2.6.28) requires stunnel to be executed as root. setuid option will also break this functionality.
Linux >=2.6.28 requires the following setup for iptables and routing (possibly in /etc/rc.local or equivalent file):
iptables -t mangle -N DIVERT iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m socket -j DIVERT iptables -t mangle -A DIVERT -j MARK --set-mark 1 iptables -t mangle -A DIVERT -j ACCEPT ip rule add fwmark 1 lookup 100 ip route add local 0.0.0.0/0 dev lo table 100
Linux 2.2.x requires kernel to be compiled with transparent proxy option. Connected service must be installed on a separate host. Routing towards the clients has to go through the stunnel box.
Local mode works by LD_PRELOADing env.so shared library.
level 1 - verify peer certificate if present level 2 - verify peer certificate level 3 - verify peer with locally installed certificate default - no verify
It is important to understand, that this option was solely designed for access control and not for authorization. Specifically for level 2 every non-revoked certificate is accepted regardless of its Common Name. For this reason a dedicated CA should be used with level 2, and not a generic CA commonly used for webservers. Level 3 is preferred for point-to-point connections.
[imapd] accept = 993 exec = /usr/sbin/imapd execargs = imapd
If you want to provide tunneling to your pppd daemon on port 2020, use something like
[vpn] accept = 2020 exec = /usr/sbin/pppd execargs = pppd local pty = yes
If you want to use stunnel in inetd mode to launch your imapd process, you'd use this stunnel.conf. Note there must be no [service_name] section.
exec = /usr/sbin/imapd execargs = imapd
Here is an example of advanced engine configuration to read private key from an OpenSC engine
engine=dynamic engineCtrl=SO_PATH:/usr/lib/opensc/engine_pkcs11.so engineCtrl=ID:pkcs11 engineCtrl=LIST_ADD:1 engineCtrl=LOAD engineCtrl=MODULE_PATH:/usr/lib/pkcs11/opensc-pkcs11.so engineCtrl=INIT [service] engineNum=1 key=id_45
For example, if you have the following line in inetd.conf:
imaps stream tcp nowait root /usr/bin/stunnel stunnel /etc/stunnel/imaps.conf
In these cases, the inetd-style program is responsible for binding a network socket (imaps above) and handing it to stunnel when a connection is received. Thus you do not want stunnel to have any accept option. All the Service Level Options should be placed in the global options section, and no [service_name] section will be present. See the EXAMPLES section for example configurations.
The order of contents of the .pem file is important. It should contain the unencrypted private key first, then a signed certificate (not certificate request). There should be also empty lines after certificate and private key. Plaintext certificate information appended on the top of generated certificate should be discarded. So the file should look like this:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- [encoded key] -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY----- [empty line] -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- [encoded certificate] -----END CERTIFICATE----- [empty line]
With recent (>=OpenSSL 0.9.5a) version of SSL it will stop loading random data automatically when sufficient entropy has been gathered. With previous versions it will continue to gather from all the above sources since no SSL function exists to tell when enough data is available.
Note that on Windows machines that do not have console user interaction (mouse movements, creating windows, etc) the screen contents are not variable enough to be sufficient, and you should provide a random file for use with the RNDfile flag.
Note that the file specified with the RNDfile flag should contain random data --- that means it should contain different information each time stunnel is run. This is handled automatically unless the RNDoverwrite flag is used. If you wish to update this file manually, the openssl rand command in recent versions of OpenSSL, would be useful.
One important note --- if /dev/urandom is available, OpenSSL has a habit of seeding the PRNG with it even when checking the random state, so on systems with /dev/urandom you're likely to use it even though it's listed at the very bottom of the list above. This isn't stunnel's behaviour, it's OpenSSLs.