yum is an interactive, rpm based, package manager. It can automatically
perform system updates, including dependency analysis and obsolete processing
based on "repository" metadata. It can also perform installation of new
packages, removal of old packages and perform queries on the installed and/or
available packages among many other commands/services (see below). yum
is similar to other high level package managers like apt-get and smart.
While there are some graphical interfaces directly to the yum code, more
recent graphical interface development is happening with PackageKit and the
Unless the --help or -h option is given, one of the above commands
must be present.
Repository configuration is honored in all operations.
Is used to install the latest version of a package or
group of packages while ensuring that all dependencies are
satisfied. If no package matches the given package name(s), they are
assumed to be a shell glob and any matches are then installed. If the
name starts with an @ character the rest of the name is used as though
passed to the groupinstall command. If the name is a file, then install works
like localinstall. If the name doesn't match a package, then package
"provides" are searched (Eg. "_sqlitecache.so()(64bit)") as are
filelists (Eg. "/usr/bin/yum"). Also note that for filelists, wildcards will
match multiple packages.
If run without any packages, update will update every currently
installed package. If one or more packages or package globs are specified, Yum will
only update the listed packages. While updating packages, yum
will ensure that all dependencies are satisfied. If the packages or globs
specified match to packages which are not currently installed then update will
not install them. update operates on groups, files, provides and filelists
just like the "install" command.
If the main obsoletes configure option is true (default) or the --obsoletes
flag is present yum will include package
obsoletes in its calculations - this makes it better for distro-version
changes, for example: upgrading from somelinux 8.0 to somelinux 9.
Implemented so you could know if your machine had any updates that needed to
be applied without running it interactively. Returns exit value of 100 if
there are packages available for an update. Also returns a list of the packages
to be updated in list format. Returns 0 if no packages are available for
update. Returns 1 if an error occurred.
Running in verbose mode also shows obsoletes.
Is the same as the update command with the --obsoletes flag set. See update
for more details.
remove or erase
Are used to remove the specified packages from the system
as well as removing any packages which depend on the package being
removed. remove operates on groups, files, provides and filelists just like
the "install" command.
Is used to list various information about available
packages; more complete details are available in the List Options
provides or whatprovides
Is used to find out which package provides some feature
or file. Just use a specific name or a file-glob-syntax wildcards to list
the packages available or installed that provide that feature or file.
Is used to find any packages matching a string in the description, summary
and package name fields of an rpm. Useful for finding a package
you do not know by name but know by some word related to it.
Is used to list a description and summary information about available
packages; takes the same arguments as in the List Options
Is used to clean up various things which accumulate in the
yum cache directory over time. More complete details can be found in
the Clean Options section below.
Is used to download and make usable all the metadata for the currently enabled
Is used to install all of the individual packages in a group, of the specified
types (this works as if you'd taken each of those package names and put them on
the command line for a "yum install" command).
The group_package_types configuration option specifies which types will
Is just an alias for groupinstall, which will do the right thing because
"yum install X" and "yum update X" do the same thing, when X is already
Is used to list the available groups from all yum repos. Groups are marked
as "installed" if all mandatory packages are installed, or if a group doesn't
have any mandatory packages then it is installed if any of the optional or
default package are installed.
The optional "hidden" argument will also list groups marked as not being
"user visible". If you pass the -v option, to enable verbose mode, then the
groupids are displayed.
Is used to remove all of the packages in a group, unlike "groupinstall" this
will remove everything regardless of group_package_types. It is worth pointing
out that packages can be in more than one group, so "groupinstall X Y" followed
by "groupremove Y" does not do give you the same result as "groupinstall X".
Is used to give the description and package list of a group (and which type
those packages are marked as). Note that you can use the yum-filter-data and
yum-list-data plugins to get/use the data the other way around (Ie. what
groups own packages need updating). If you pass the -v option, to enable verbose
mode, then the package names are matched against installed/available packages
similar to the list command.
Is used to enter the 'yum shell', when a filename is specified the contents of
that file is executed in yum shell mode. See yum-shell(8) for more info
Is used to list packages providing the specified dependencies, at most one
package is listed per dependency.
Is used to install a set of local rpm files. If required the enabled
repositories will be used to resolve dependencies. Note that the install command
will do a local install, if given a filename.
Is used to update the system by specifying local rpm files. Only the specified
rpm files of which an older version is already installed will be installed,
the remaining specified packages will be ignored.
If required the enabled repositories will be used to resolve dependencies. Note
that the update command will do a local install, if given a filename.
Will reinstall the identically versioned package as is currently installed.
This does not work for "installonly" packages, like Kernels. reinstall operates
on groups, files, provides and filelists just like the "install" command.
Will try and downgrade a package from the version currently installed to the
previously highest version (or the specified version).
The depsolver will not necessarily work, but if you specify all the packages it
should work (and thus. all the simple cases will work). Also this does not
work for "installonly" packages, like Kernels. downgrade operates
on groups, files, provides and filelists just like the "install" command.
Produces a list of all dependencies and what packages provide those
dependencies for the given packages.
Produces a list of configured repositories. The default is to list all
enabled repositories. If you pass -v, for verbose mode, more information is
Produces a "version" of the rpmdb, and of the enabled repositories if "all" is
given as the first argument. You can also specify version groups in the
version-groups config. file. If you pass -v, for verbose mode, more
information is listed. The version is calculated by taking a sha1 hash of the
packages (in sorted order), and the checksum_type/checksum_data entries from
the yumdb. Note that this rpmdb version is now also used significantly within
yum (esp. in yum history).
The history command allows the user to view what has happened in past
transactions (assuming the history_record config. option is set). You can use
info/list/summary to view what happened, undo/redo to act on that information
and new to start a new history file.
The info/list/summary commands take either a transactions id or a package (with
wildcards, as in Specifying package names), all three can also be passed
no arguments. list can be passed the keyword "all" to list all the transactions.
undo/redo just take a transaction id.
Produces help, either for all commands or if given a command name then the help
for that particular command.
Most command line options can be set using the configuration file as
well and the descriptions indicate the necessary configuration option
Help; display a help message and then quit.
Assume yes; assume that the answer to any question which would be asked
Configuration Option: assumeyes
-c [config file]
Specifies the config file location - can take HTTP and FTP URLs and local file
Run without output. Note that you likely also want to use -y.
Run with a lot of debugging output.
Sets the debugging level to [number] - turns up or down the amount of things that are printed. Practical range: 0 - 10
Configuration Option: debuglevel
Sets the error level to [number] Practical range 0 - 10. 0 means print only critical errors about which you must be told. 1 means print all errors, even ones that are not overly important. 1+ means print more errors (if any) -e 0 is good for cron jobs.
Configuration Option: errorlevel
-R [time in minutes]
Sets the maximum amount of time yum will wait before performing a command - it randomizes over the time.
Tells yum to run entirely from cache - does not download or update any
headers unless it has to to perform the requested action.
Reports the yum version number and installed package versions for
everything in history_record_packages (can be added to by plugins).
Doesn't limit packages to their latest versions in the info, list and search
commands (will also affect plugins which use the doPackageLists() API).
Specifies an alternative installroot, relative to which all packages will be
Configuration Option: installroot
Enables specific repositories by id or glob that have been disabled in the
configuration file using the enabled=0 option.
Configuration Option: enabled
Disables specific repositories by id or glob.
Configuration Option: enabled
This option only has affect for an update, it enables yum's obsoletes
processing logic. For more information see the update command above.
Configuration Option: obsoletes
Exclude a specific package by name or glob from updates on all repositories.
Configuration Option: exclude
Display colorized output automatically, depending on the output terminal,
always (using ANSI codes) or never. Note that some commands (Eg. list and info)
will do a little extra work when color is enabled.
Configuration Option: color
Disable the excludes defined in your config files. Takes one of three options:
all == disable all excludes
main == disable excludes defined in [main] in yum.conf
repoid == disable excludes defined for that repo
Run with one or more plugins disabled, the argument is a comma separated list
of wildcards to match against plugin names.
Run with all plugins disabled.
Configuration Option: plugins
Run with GPG signature checking disabled.
Configuration Option: gpgcheck
Resolve depsolve problems by removing packages that are causing problems
from the transaction.
Configuration Option: skip_broken
This option currently does nothing.
The following are the ways which you can invoke yum in list
mode. Note that all list commands include information on the
version of the package.
The format of the output of yum list is:
name.arch :\version-release repo or @installed-from-repo
yum list [all | glob_exp1] [glob_exp2] [...]
List all available and installed packages.
yum list available [glob_exp1] [...]
List all packages in the yum repositories available to be installed.
yum list updates [glob_exp1] [...]
List all packages with updates available in the yum repositories.
yum list installed [glob_exp1] [...]
List the packages specified by args. If an argument does not
match the name of an available package, it is assumed to be a
shell-style glob and any matches are printed.
yum list extras [glob_exp1] [...]
List the packages installed on the system that are not available in any yum
repository listed in the config file.
yum list obsoletes [glob_exp1] [...]
List the packages installed on the system that are obsoleted by packages
in any yum repository listed in the config file.
yum list recent
List packages recently added into the repositories.
Specifying package names
All the list options mentioned above take file-glob-syntax wildcards or package
names as arguments, for example yum list available 'foo*' will list
all available packages that match 'foo*'. (The single quotes will keep your
shell from expanding the globs.)
The following are the ways which you can invoke yum in clean
mode. Note that "all files" in the commands below means
"all files in currently enabled repositories".
If you want to also clean any (temporarily) disabled repositories you need to
use --enablerepo='*' option.
yum clean expire-cache
Eliminate the local data saying when the metadata and mirrorlists were downloaded for each repo. This means yum will revalidate the cache for each repo. next time it is used. However if the cache is still valid, nothing significant was deleted.
yum clean packages
Eliminate any cached packages from the system. Note that packages are not automatically deleted after they are downloaded.
yum clean headers
Eliminate all of the header files which yum uses for dependency resolution.
yum clean metadata
Eliminate all of the files which yum uses to determine the remote
availability of packages. Using this option will force yum to download all the
metadata the next time it is run.
yum clean dbcache
Eliminate the sqlite cache used for faster access to metadata.
Using this option will force yum to recreate the cache the next time
it is run.
yum clean all
Runs yum clean packages and yum clean headers, yum clean metadata and yum clean dbcache as above.
Specifying package names
A package can be referred to for install,update,list,remove etc with any
of the following:
name name.arch name-ver name-ver-rel name-ver-rel.arch name-epoch:ver-rel.arch epoch:name-ver-rel.arch
For example: yum remove kernel-2.4.1-10.i686
Yum can be extended through the use of plugins. A plugin is a Python ".py" file
which is installed in one of the directories specified by the pluginpath
option in yum.conf. For a plugin to work, the following conditions must be met:
1. The plugin module file must be installed in the plugin path as just
2. The global plugins option in /etc/yum/yum.conf must be set to `1'.
3. A configuration file for the plugin must exist in
/etc/yum/pluginconf.d/<plugin_name>.conf and the enabled setting in this
file must set to `1'. The minimal content for such a configuration file is:
enabled = 1
See the yum.conf(5) man page for more information on plugin related